The GABA type A receptor alpha5 subunit gene is associated with bipolar I disorder.
ABSTRACT Several genetic studies have revealed that bipolar disorders are linked with the chromosomal locus of 15q11-q13, where the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor alpha5 subunit gene (GABRA5) locates. GABA is one of the major neurotransmitters that may be involved in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder. Five polymorphisms in the GABRA5 gene, -754C>T in the promoter region, IVS1-21G>A, IVS2-26T>A, (*)302C>T in 3'-UTR of exon 5, and a CA repeat polymorphism in the 3' flanking region were examined in a Japanese population. IVS1-21G>A exhibited significant differences in the distribution of the genotype and allele frequency in bipolar I disorder patients but not in bipolar II disorder patients, compared with control subjects. The haplotype analysis showed that IVS1-21G>A/IVS2-26A>T was associated with bipolar I disorder, and the IVS1-21A/IVS2-26T haplotype was a negative risk factor for susceptibility to the disorders (odds ratio: 0.57, 95% confidence interval: 0.44-0.73). These results suggest that the GABRA5 gene may confer susceptibility to bipolar I disorder.
SourceAvailable from: Alberto Leoni[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Thiazole is a well-known five-membered heterocyclic compound. Various methods have been worked out for its synthesis. In the last few decades, a lot of work has been done on thiazole ring in order to find new compounds related to this scaffold acting as an antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, diuretic, anticonvulsant, neuroprotective and antitumor or cytotoxic drugs with lesser side effects. This review presents the up to date development of different thiazole derivatives. Areas covered: This review gives an account of the recent therapeutic patent literature (2008 - 2012) describing the applications of thiazole and its derivatives on selected activities. In this review, many of the therapeutic applications of thiazole derivatives reported in international patents have been discussed. In addition to selected biological data, some of pharmaceutical applications are also summarized. Because of the large number of patents registered in this period relative to thiazole derivatives the attention was focused, in this first part of the review, on inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, inhibitors of protein kinase and derivatives modulating enzymes related to metabolism. Expert opinion: This review of patented products presents the thiazole ring as the nucleus of the derivatives considered from a medicinal chemistry perspective. The applications are based firstly on the specific enzyme target with very low development in the disease treatment. Most of the described compounds are shown to have beneficial therapeutic effects but at the same time these compounds, selective for 'multi-signaling pathway' targets, may also increase the side-effect potential.Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents 11/2013; DOI:10.1517/13543776.2014.858121 · 3.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) abnormalities have been implicated in bipolar disorder. However, due to discrepant studies measuring postmortem, cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, and in vivo brain levels of GABA, the nature of these abnormalities is unclear. Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we investigated tissue levels of GABA in the anterior cingulate cortex and parieto-occipital cortex of participants with bipolar disorder and healthy controls. METHODS: Fourteen stably medicated euthymic outpatients with bipolar disorder type I (mean age 32.6 years, eight male) and 14 healthy control participants (mean age 36.9 years, 10 male) completed a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy scan at 4-Tesla after providing informed consent. We collected data from two 16.7-mL voxels using MEGAPRESS, and they were analyzed using LCModel. RESULTS: GABA/creatine ratios were elevated in bipolar disorder participants compared to healthy controls [F(1,21) = 4.4, p = 0.048] in the anterior cingulate cortex (25.1% elevation) and the parieto-occipital cortex (14.6% elevation). Bipolar disorder participants not taking GABA-modulating medications demonstrated greater GABA/creatine elevations than patients taking GABA-modulating medications. CONCLUSIONS: We found higher GABA/creatine levels in euthymic bipolar disorder outpatients compared to healthy controls, and the extent of this elevation may be affected by the use of GABA-modulating medications. Our findings suggest that elevated brain GABA levels in bipolar disorder may be associated with GABAergic dysfunction and that GABA-modulating medications reduce GABA levels in this condition.Bipolar Disorders 05/2013; 15(4). DOI:10.1111/bdi.12074 · 4.89 Impact Factor