Comparison of electroejaculation and transrectal massage for semen collection in range and yearling feedlot beef bulls
ABSTRACT Two experiments were conducted to compare electroejaculation (EE) and transrectal massage (RM) of the ampullary region for semen collection from beef bulls, and to determine the effect of semen collection method on semen traits. In experiment 1, semen was collected either by EE or RM randomly assigned on an alternate basis in 137 range beef bulls unaccustomed to being handled. The maximum time allowed for RM was 4 min and if no semen was obtained, EE was used. In experiment 2, semen was collected from 39 yearling feedlot beef bulls that were accustomed to being handled, by RM followed immediately by EE. The maximum time allowed for semen collection by both methods was 4 min. In both experiments, sperm concentration, percent of progressively motile sperm, percent of sperm staining alive, and sperm morphology were determined. In experiment 1, RM resulted in fewer (P<0.001) successful semen collections and fewer bulls with penile protrusion than EE (80.9% versus 100% and 54.4% versus 91.5%, respectively). The success of RM was not influenced by bull age or breed, or by the veterinarian performing the massage. Transrectal massage required more time (30s, P<0.001) for obtaining a semen sample and resulted in samples with lower sperm concentration (P<0.001), percent motile sperm (P<0.05) and percent live sperm (P<0.001) when compared to EE. In experiment 2, EE and RM were equally effective for obtaining a semen sample (97.4 and 94.9%, respectively), but the proportion of bulls exhibiting penile protrusion during semen collection was lower (P<0.0001) with RM compared to EE. Percent of sperm staining alive was also lower (P<0.01) in samples collected by RM. Sperm morphology (normal sperm, head defects, midpiece defects, proximal cytoplasmic droplets, and detached sperm heads) did not differ between samples collected by EE and RM. In conclusion, semen could be collected by transrectal massage from approximately 80% of range beef bulls and from 95% of yearling beef bulls accustomed to handling. Sperm morphology was not affected by the method of semen collection, but percent of motile sperm and live sperm were lower in samples collected by RM. A reduced ability to stimulate penile protrusion with RM precluded examination of the penis in a large proportion of bulls.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two semen collection methods (electro-ejaculation [EE] and transrectal massage [RM]) on in vitro sperm functionality and protein composition of seminal plasma in Bali bulls. Ten untrained Bali bulls were selected for semen collection by EE and RM. Parameters analysed were acrosome and plasma membrane integrity, sperm motility (by CASA), normal morphology, functionality (sperm penetration assay), acrosome reaction, total protein content and protein profiles (by 2D-PAGE). Bulls collected by RM had a higher (p<0.05) percentage of spermatozoa with intact acrosome and plasma membrane, functionality and individual motility, and a lower proportion of seminal plasma, total protein content and lower ratio of low molecular weight proteins than those collected by EE. Analysis of 2D-PAGE gel detected about 116 spots in the range of 10–250 kDa and isoelectric points (pI) ranging from 3 to 10. Approximately 52% of seminal plasma protein spots were represented by four major protein fractions with molecular weights around 37–45 kDa (15.66%), 25–30 kDa (12.46%), 14–16 kDa (11.73%) and 12–15 kDa (11.52%). Ten of the seminal plasma proteins identified by mass spectrometry belonged to major bovine seminal plasma proteins. A very significant finding in this study was related to the two proteins identified, PGK and PLA2, with MW of approximately 37–40 and 50–55 kDa and pI of 8.5–8.8 and 5.2–6.0, respectively. These two protein spots can only be detected in the seminal plasma of ejaculates obtained through RM. In conclusion, semen quality as examined by in vitro sperm functionality was found to be better in RM than EE samples after treatment with heparin and calcium ionophore A-23187. In addition some low molecular weight proteins were up-regulated in the seminal plasma obtained from the EE method.Livestock Science 12/2014; 172. DOI:10.1016/j.livsci.2014.12.004 · 1.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine if the breeding potential of 25-month old Bonsmara beef bulls could be predicted from production characteristics. Forty-one Bonsmara bulls were included in an on-farm performance test (also known as the Phase D growth test) for a period of 180 days. At an average age of 24.7 months the bulls were subjected to a libido test and overall breeding soundness evaluation (OBE). The bulls were categorised into independent breeding potential categories according to the scores they obtained for the measured reproductive traits. The categories included sperm morphology and motility. One-way ANOVA revealed that none of the production traits measured had a significant effect on the different breeding potential categories. A positive correlation (r = 0.33) was recorded between pre-weaning growth rate and percentage morphologically normal sperm, while a negative correlation (r = -0.36) was recorded between total acrosomal- and flagellar sperm defects and pre-weaning growth. A positive correlation was demonstrated between sperm motility and pre-weaning growth (r = 0.36), and a consequent negative correlation (r = -0.38) between the percentage aberrant sperm movement and pre-weaning growth. The correlation between the percentage morphologically normal sperm and percentage progressively moving sperm was r = 0.50, while the correlation between percentage morphologically normal sperm and aberrant and immotile sperm was r = 0.48 for both variables. The number of total defects correlated highly significantly with flagellar and acrosomal defects (r = 0.72 and r = 0.93, respectively) and correlated poorly with the total number of nuclear defects (r = 0.32). These results suggest that total sperm defects were mainly due to acrosomal and flagellar defects, rather than nuclear defects and as the percentage morphologically normal sperm decreased, the motility also decreased. High growth rates before weaning may have a positive effect, while high growth rates after weaning may have a negative effect on the breeding potential of a bull. None of the measured reproductive and production traits had a significant effect on libido score and thus, cannot be used to predict the libido of young extensively maintained bulls.South African Journal Of Animal Science 12/2009; 40(3):163-172. · 0.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although semen quality is one of the major traits that influence breeding soundness examination outcomes in bulls, field conditions occasionally do not allow for the collection of semen samples by means of an artificial vagina. The aims of the present study were to report the results of a large number of semen collections that were performed via the transrectal massage (TRM) of the accessory sexual glands of Italian yearling beef bulls and compare this semen collection method to the artificial vagina (AV) method in term of breeding soundness examination outcomes; furthermore, we determined whether the breed affected the semen characteristics. In the TRM group (n = 475), the semen samples were collected via TRM of the accessory sexual glands, and in the AV group (n = 502), the AV method was used. In the TRM group, semen samples were obtained from 81.3% of the bulls and penile protrusion was observed in 87.6% of the animals during semen collection. The sperm concentrations (920.5 ± 439.0 vs. 281.0 ± 259.8 × 106/mL) and the percentages of total abnormal spermatozoa (22.8 ± 15.0 vs. 18.8 ± 12.9) were significantly higher in the AV group than those in the TRM group. The percentage of bulls that did not meet the minimum requirement for normal cells (≥70%) was 6.2% higher in the AV group than that in the TRM group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the samples collected from Chianina bulls by TRM exhibited a lower percentage of motile sperm and a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa when compared with the other two breeds. The major drawbacks of the TRM technique were the inability to conduct complete evaluation of the libido and mating ability of the yearling bulls, a significant reduction of the number of spermatozoa collected, and an increase in the variability of the semen characteristics due to breed. In conclusion, despite the drawbacks, TRM guarantees that semen evaluation can be conducted in cases in which the semen samples cannot be collected with the AV method.Theriogenology 11/2014; 83(5). DOI:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2014.11.011 · 1.85 Impact Factor