Comparison of electroejaculation and transrectal massage for semen collection in range and yearling feedlot beef bulls.
ABSTRACT Two experiments were conducted to compare electroejaculation (EE) and transrectal massage (RM) of the ampullary region for semen collection from beef bulls, and to determine the effect of semen collection method on semen traits. In experiment 1, semen was collected either by EE or RM randomly assigned on an alternate basis in 137 range beef bulls unaccustomed to being handled. The maximum time allowed for RM was 4 min and if no semen was obtained, EE was used. In experiment 2, semen was collected from 39 yearling feedlot beef bulls that were accustomed to being handled, by RM followed immediately by EE. The maximum time allowed for semen collection by both methods was 4 min. In both experiments, sperm concentration, percent of progressively motile sperm, percent of sperm staining alive, and sperm morphology were determined. In experiment 1, RM resulted in fewer (P<0.001) successful semen collections and fewer bulls with penile protrusion than EE (80.9% versus 100% and 54.4% versus 91.5%, respectively). The success of RM was not influenced by bull age or breed, or by the veterinarian performing the massage. Transrectal massage required more time (30s, P<0.001) for obtaining a semen sample and resulted in samples with lower sperm concentration (P<0.001), percent motile sperm (P<0.05) and percent live sperm (P<0.001) when compared to EE. In experiment 2, EE and RM were equally effective for obtaining a semen sample (97.4 and 94.9%, respectively), but the proportion of bulls exhibiting penile protrusion during semen collection was lower (P<0.0001) with RM compared to EE. Percent of sperm staining alive was also lower (P<0.01) in samples collected by RM. Sperm morphology (normal sperm, head defects, midpiece defects, proximal cytoplasmic droplets, and detached sperm heads) did not differ between samples collected by EE and RM. In conclusion, semen could be collected by transrectal massage from approximately 80% of range beef bulls and from 95% of yearling beef bulls accustomed to handling. Sperm morphology was not affected by the method of semen collection, but percent of motile sperm and live sperm were lower in samples collected by RM. A reduced ability to stimulate penile protrusion with RM precluded examination of the penis in a large proportion of bulls.
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ABSTRACT: This experiment was conducted to compare the accepted Field system of bull breeding soundness evaluation (BBSE) utilized by veterinarians in Canada with the centralized Swedish (Lab) system. To be classified as a satisfactory potential breeder, both systems require that bulls must have ≥70% morphologically normal sperm; however, minimum progressively motile sperm (≥60% - Field; ≥30% - Lab) and maximum sperm class abnormalities proportions differ (<20% - Field; <15% - Lab). Semen was collected by transrectal massage (TM) from 54 sexually mature beef bulls. The percent progressively motile sperm was determined within minutes of collection and these data were shared. Sperm morphology was evaluated independently utilizing slide staining and microscopic assessment techniques typically used for the evaluation of bull semen within the respective countries. Mean progressively motile sperm was 45% (±23.8%). The mean proportion of normal sperm recorded in the Field (83.6±12.1%) was greater than the Lab (71.1±18.2%) (P<0.001) with more sperm head abnormalities recorded in the Lab (13.6±11.4) than the Field (2.4±2.8) (P<0.01). The number of bulls exceeding the ≥70% morphologically normal sperm was 51 (94.4%) in the Field versus 36 (66.7%) in the Lab (kappa=0.21). Only 13 bulls were classified as satisfactory potential breeders by both systems (kappa=0.15). Efforts to improve and standardize the evaluation of bull sperm morphology are needed, and the use of ≥30% progressively motile sperm threshold for TM-derived samples is recommended.Animal reproduction science 06/2013; · 1.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the response of Bali bulls (Bos javanicus) to different semen collection methods and their effects on fresh and post-thawed semen quality. The collection methods employed were electro-ejaculation (EE), transrectal massage (RM) and RM followed by EE (RM + EE). A total of 25 untrained Bali bulls (age between 2 and 4 years old) were subjected to the different semen collection methods. Fresh semen samples from all the 25 bulls were evaluated for volume, pH, general motility, live/dead ratio and abnormality using the conventional method. For fresh and frozen samples collected by EE and RM from 10 bulls, computer-assisted semen analysis system was used for precise quantitative measurement of motility, velocity and forward progression. Accucell photometer was used to measure sperm concentration in all samples, regardless fresh and frozen. Semen samples were obtained 100% of the attempts using EE, 84% using RM and 96% using RM + EE. There were no differences among the collection methods for fresh semen quality characteristics, including motility, morphology and viability, but pH and volume were higher for EE than RM and RM + EE. Higher sperm concentration was observed in semen collected by RM than the other two methods. Different age groups (2-3 and >3-4 years old) of the bulls did not show significant differences in volume, pH, sperm concentration, percentages in motility, live/dead ratio and normal sperm morphology. The quality of semen for general and progressive motility, VAP, VSL and VCL and acrosomal integrity after thawing was higher for RM than EE. In conclusion, Bali bulls appeared to respond best to EE and the combination of RM + EE than RM, as a method of semen collection, with a shorter time of stimulation required. Differences in age of the Bali bulls did not affect the semen quality.Reproduction in Domestic Animals 06/2013; · 1.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ejaculates from nine Asian and two African elephants were analysed to gain a further understanding of mechanisms underlying variable semen quality after transrectal massage. Semen analysis was performed after collection (0 h; subjective motility parameters only) and after 24 h of chilled storage at 10 °C (24 h; all ejaculate and sperm characteristics). Ejaculates with ≤50% total motility (TM) at 24 h, which represented >90% of collection attempts, contained a sperm population with a high degree of DNA damage (64.2 ± 19.2% fragmented DNA) and an elevated incidence of detached heads (43.3 ± 22.5%). In contrast, good quality ejaculates designated as those with >50% TM at 24 h displayed higher (p < 0.05) values of sperm kinetic parameters, DNA integrity and normal morphology. Fertility potential was high for good quality ejaculates from two males (one Asian and one African bull) based on in vitro characteristics after chilled storage for up to 48 h post-collection. Urine contamination of semen, as assessed quantitatively by creatinine concentration, was confirmed as a significant factor in reduced elephant ejaculate quality. However, the identification of considerable DNA damage and morphological degeneration in the majority of ejaculates after only 24 h of chilled storage indicates that sperm ageing could be a primary contributor to inconsistent semen quality in the elephant.Andrology 03/2013; · 3.37 Impact Factor