Differential expression of cytokines in the brain and serum during endotoxin tolerance.
ABSTRACT Using short- and long-course lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment regimens to induce endotoxin tolerance in rats, we compared TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 expression in the brain and serum following a LPS challenge. Serum corticosterone was also examined to evaluate the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We found that, during endotoxin tolerance, LPS-induced cytokine expression still occurred in the brain even when cytokines in the periphery were no longer induced, and that this differential cytokine expression may be mediated by corticosterone, a stress hormone and an anti-inflammatory agent.
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ABSTRACT: Repeated exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces desensitization of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) responses and hypophagia. We investigated the interplay between the neural circuitries involved in the control of food intake and HPA axis activity following single or repeated LPS injections. Male Wistar rats received a single or repeated i.p. injection of LPS (100 microg/kg) for 6 days and were subdivided into four groups: 6 saline, 5 saline+1 LPS, 5 LPS+1 saline and 6 LPS. Animals with a single exposure to LPS showed increased plasma levels of ACTH, CORT, PRL, TNF-alpha and also CRF mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. These animals exhibited a reduced food intake and body weight associated with an increase of CART expression in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Leptin plasma levels were not altered. On the other hand, repeated LPS administration did not alter ACTH, CORT, PRL and TNF-alpha, but it reduced leptin level, compared to single LPS or saline treatment. Furthermore, repeated LPS administration did not increase CRF or CART mRNA expression. Food intake and weight gain after repeated LPS injections were not different from saline-treated animals. There was no change in NPY and POMC mRNA expression in the ARC after single or repeated injections of LPS. In conclusion, desensitization induced by repeated exposure to LPS involves the blockade of HPA axis activation and anorexigenic response, which are both associated with an unresponsiveness of TNF-alpha production and CRF and CART expression in the hypothalamus.Hormones and Behavior 12/2007; 52(4):508-19. DOI:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2007.07.006 · 4.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical dysfunction contributes to morbidity and mortality in a high proportion of patients with sepsis. Here, we provide new insights into the underlying adrenal pathology. Using a murine model of endotoxemia (LPS injection), we demonstrate that adrenal insufficiency is triggered early in the disease. LPS induced a local inflammatory response in the adrenal gland within 4 hours of administration, coupled with increased expression of mRNAs for annexin A1 (AnxA1) and the formyl peptide receptors [(Fprs) 1, 2, and 3], a loss of lipid droplets in cortical cells (index of availability of cholesterol, the substrate for steroidogenesis), and a failure to mount a steroidogenic response to ACTH. Deletion of AnxA1 or Fpr2/3 in mice prevented lipid droplet loss, but not leukocyte infiltration. LPS increased adrenal myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 and TLR2 mRNA expression, but not lymphocyte antigen 96 or TLR4. By contrast, neutrophil depletion prevented leukocyte infiltration and increased AnxA1, Fpr1, and Fpr3 mRNAs but had no impact on lipid droplet loss. Our novel data demonstrate that AnxA1 and Fpr2 have a critical role in the manifestation of adrenal insufficiency in this model, through regulation of cholesterol ester storage, suggesting that pharmacologic interventions targeting the AnxA1/FPR/ALX pathway may provide a new approach for the maintenance of adrenal steroidogenesis in sepsis.-Buss, N. A. P. S., Gavins, F. N. E., Cover, P. O., Terron, A., Buckingham, J. C. Targeting the annexin 1-formyl peptide receptor 2/ALX pathway affords protection against bacterial LPS-induced pathologic changes in the murine adrenal cortex. © FASEB.The FASEB Journal 03/2015; DOI:10.1096/fj.14-268375 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is widely used to examine immune behavior relationships there has been little consideration of the effects of low doses and the roles of sensitization and, or tolerance. Here low doses of LPS (1.0, 5.0 and 25.0μg/kg) were peripherally administered to male mice on Days 1, 4, 28 and 32 after a baseline recording of anxiety-like behaviors in an automated light-dark apparatus (total time in the light chamber, number of light-dark transitions, nose pokes into the light chamber). LPS at 1.0μg/kg, while having no significant effects on anxiety-like behaviors in the light-dark test on Days 1 and 4, displayed sensitization with the mice exhibiting significantly enhanced anxiety-like responses on Days 28 and 32. LPS at 5.0μg/kg had no consistent significant effects on anxiety-like behavior on Days 1 and 4, with sensitization and enhanced anxiety-like behaviors on Day 28 followed by tolerance on Day 32. LPS at 25μg/kg significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors on Day 1, followed by tolerance on Day 4, which was not evident by Day 28 and re-emerged on Day 32. There was a similar overall pattern of sensitization and tolerance for LPS-induced decreases in locomotor activity in the safe dark chamber, without, however, any significant effects on activity in the riskier light chamber. This shows that low doses of LPS induce anxiety-like behavior and these effects are subject to sensitization and tolerance in a dose, context, and time related manner. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Behavioural Brain Research 03/2015; 286. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2015.03.004 · 3.39 Impact Factor