A topographically and conformationally constrained, spin-labeled, alpha-amino acid: crystallographic characterization in peptides.
ABSTRACT 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl-4-amino-4-carboxylic acid (TOAC) is a topographically and conformationally restricted, nitroxide containing, C(alpha)-tetrasubstituted alpha-amino acid. Here, we describe the molecular and crystal structures, as determined by X-ray diffraction analyses, of a TOAC terminally protected derivative, the cyclic dipeptide c(TOAC)(2).1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (HFIP) solvate, and five TOAC-containing, terminally protected, linear peptides ranging in length from tetra- to hepta-peptides. Incipient and fully developed, regular or distorted 3(10)-helical structures are formed by the linear peptides. A detailed discussion on the average geometry and preferred conformation for the TOAC piperidine ring is also reported. The X-ray diffraction structure of an intramolecularly cyclized side product resulting from a C-activated TOAC residue has also been determined.
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ABSTRACT: In order to test the helical preference of short oligo-L-leucines, we crystallized the tripeptide L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucine (LLL) and carried out x-ray diffraction studies of it (L-leucyl-L-leucyl-Lleucine)2. 3CH3OH. H2O, (C39H84N6O12), crystallized in the monoclinic system, space group P2(1), cell parameters: a = 12.031(2), b = 15.578(3), c = 14.087(2) A, alpha = 90 degrees, beta = 97.29(1) degrees, gamma = 90 degrees, V = 2618.6 A3, MW = 829.1, Dc = 1.051 g cm-3, R index of 0.057 for 4213 reflections (lambda CuK alpha = 1.5418 A) > 2 sigma. LLL takes up the beta-sheet rather than a helical conformation in the crystalline state. The three methanol molecules and the water molecule that constitute the solvent of crystallization form a network of hydrogen bonds to the LLL molecules and to one another. It is rather remarkable that though A and L have stronger helical preferences than G, neither AAA nor LLL form the crystalline helix but GAL does, indicating that the helical preferences depend on the sequence context. The residue L2 in molecule A and the residues L1 and L3 of molecule B do not show the preferred conformation for forming helices. Further, very remarkably, LLL exhibits a unique supersecondary feature of the protein folding topology, namely the twisted beta-sheet, whereas most short peptides show only the classical beta-sheet conformation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Biopolymers 11/1995; 36(5):607-14. · 2.88 Impact Factor
Article: Turns in peptides and proteins.Advances in protein chemistry 02/1985; 37:1-109. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The preferred conformations of peptides heavily based on the currently extensively exploited achiral and chiral alpha-amino acids with a quaternary alpha-carbon atom, as determined by conformational energy computations, crystal-state (x-ray diffraction) analyses, and solution ((1)H-NMR and spectroscopic) investigations, are reviewed. It is concluded that 3(10)/alpha-helical structures and the fully extended (C(5)) conformation are preferentially adopted by peptide sequences characterized by this family of amino acids, depending upon overall bulkiness and nature (e.g., whether acyclic or C(alpha) (i) <--> C(alpha) (i) cyclized) of their side chains. The intriguing relationship between alpha-carbon chirality and bend/helix handedness is also illustrated. gamma-Bends and semiextended conformations are rarely observed. Formation of beta-sheet structures is prevented.Biopolymers 02/2001; 60(6):396-419. · 2.88 Impact Factor