A topographically and conformationally constrained, spin-labeled, alpha-amino acid: crystallographic characterization in peptides.
ABSTRACT 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl-4-amino-4-carboxylic acid (TOAC) is a topographically and conformationally restricted, nitroxide containing, C(alpha)-tetrasubstituted alpha-amino acid. Here, we describe the molecular and crystal structures, as determined by X-ray diffraction analyses, of a TOAC terminally protected derivative, the cyclic dipeptide c(TOAC)(2).1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (HFIP) solvate, and five TOAC-containing, terminally protected, linear peptides ranging in length from tetra- to hepta-peptides. Incipient and fully developed, regular or distorted 3(10)-helical structures are formed by the linear peptides. A detailed discussion on the average geometry and preferred conformation for the TOAC piperidine ring is also reported. The X-ray diffraction structure of an intramolecularly cyclized side product resulting from a C-activated TOAC residue has also been determined.
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ABSTRACT: The popular biomolecular AMBER (ff99SB) force field (FF) has been extended with new parameters for the simulations of peptides containing α,α dialkylated residues with cyclic side chains. Together with the recent set of nitroxide parameters [E. Stendardo, A. Pedone, P. Cimino, M. C. Menziani, O. Crescenzi and V. Barone, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010, 12, 11697] this extension allows treating the TOAC residue (TOAC, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl-4-amino-4-carboxylic acid) widely used as a spin label in protein studies. All the conformational minima of the Ac-Ac(6)C-NMe (Ac = acetyl, Ac(6)C = 1-aminocyclohexaneacetic acid, NMe = methylamino) and Ac-TOAC-NMe dipeptides have been examined in terms of geometry and relative energy stability by Quantum Mechanical (QM) computations employing an hybrid density functional (PBE0) for an extended training set of conformers with various folds. A very good agreement between QM and MM (molecular mechanics) data has been obtained in most of the investigated properties, including solvent effects. Finally, the new set of parameters has been validated by comparing the conformational and dynamical behavior of TOAC-labeled polypeptides investigated by means of classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with QM data and experimental evidence. The new FF accurately describes the tuning of conformational and dynamical behavior of the Ac-TOAC-NMe dipeptide and double spin-labeled heptapeptide Fmoc-(Aib-Aib-TOAC)(2)-Aib-OMe (Fmoc, fluorenyl-9-methoxycarbonyl; Aib, α-aminoisobutyric acid; OMe, methoxy) by solvents with different polarity. In particular, we found that the 3(10) helical structure of heptapeptide is the most stable one in vacuo, with a geometry very similar to the X-ray crystallographic structure, whereas a conformational equilibrium between the 3(10)- and α-helical structures is established in aqueous solution, in agreement with EPR data.Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 10/2012; 14(44):15308-20. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: For 3D-structure determination in biophysical systems EPR is rapidly gaining ground. Proteins labeled specifically with two nitroxide spin labels can be prepared, and several EPR methods are available for distance determination, which makes it possible to determine distance constraints. However, such methods require frozen solutions, potentially causing non-physiological states of the sample. Here, we target spin … spin interaction in liquid solution at room temperature using rigid model compounds. A series of 310 -helical peptides, based on α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib), is synthesized with pairs of spin labels separated by three, four, and five amino acids. To avoid flexibility, the non-coded nitroxyl-containing α-amino acid TOAC, that is rigidly connected with the peptide backbone, is used. The EPR spectra of the peptides show a decreasing amount of coupling between the two spin labels within this series. We suggest through-bond interaction as the dominating mechanism for exchange interaction (J) and find a stronger J-coupling than in the corresponding Ala-based TOAC-peptides investigated previously (Hanson, P., et al., J Am Chem Soc 1996, 118, 7618-7625). We speculate that stronger coupling in Aib- vs. Ala- peptides is due to intrinsically stronger through-bond interaction in the Aib-based peptides.Biopolymers 02/2014; · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this contribution, we report on the conformational preferences of synthetic analogs of the antimicrobial peptide trichodecenin I in solution. This 6-amino acid residue long peptide is characterized by a single, strongly helicogenic Aib residue in the central part of the sequence and is rich in the conformationally mobile Gly residues. It has been reported that, in CHCl3 solution and in the crystal state, this peptaibiotic adopts a non-helical, multiple β-turn conformation, whereas a 310 /α-helical structure was obtained from an X-ray diffraction study on a trichodecenin I analog (TDT4W6) containing the fluorescent Trp residue in position 6 (replacing Ile) and an equally helicogenic TOAC residue in position 4 (replacing Aib). In this work, we applied spectroscopic techniques and molecular-dynamics calculations, in particular, on the fluorescent TDT4W6 trichodecenin I analog with the aim at investigating its 3D-structural and dynamical features in solution. Our results revealed that TDT4W6 can be described by an ensemble of conformers quickly interconverting in the nanosecond time scale. The most populated cluster has a conformation similar to the NMR structure of native trichodecenin I in CHCl3 . However, also helical-like conformers are present, even if poorly populated and less stable under the analytical conditions.Chemistry & Biodiversity 05/2013; 10(5):887-903. · 1.81 Impact Factor