Transcriptional therapy with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
ABSTRACT We demonstrate that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor drug trichostatin A (TSA) reduces spinal cord inflammation, demyelination, neuronal and axonal loss and ameliorates disability in the relapsing phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). TSA up-regulates antioxidant, anti-excitotoxicity and pro-neuronal growth and differentiation mRNAs. TSA also inhibits caspase activation and down-regulates gene targets of the pro-apoptotic E2F transcription factor pathway. In splenocytes, TSA reduces chemotactic, pro-Th1 and pro-proliferative mRNAs. A transcriptional imbalance in MS may contribute to immune dysregulation and neurodegeneration, and we identify HDAC inhibition as a transcriptional intervention to ameliorate this imbalance.
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ABSTRACT: High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was shown to be an important extracellular mediator involved in vascular inflammation of animals following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study is of interest to examine the efficacy of purpurogallin, a natural phenol, on the alternation of cytokines and HMGB1 in a SAH model. A rodent double hemorrhage SAH model was employed. Basilar arteries (BAs) were harvested to examine HMGB1 mRNA and protein expression (Western blot). CSF samples were to examine IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α (rt-PCR). Deformed endothelial wall, tortuous elastic lamina, and necrotic smooth muscle were observed in the vessels of SAH groups but were absent in the purpurogallin group. IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the SAH only and SAH plus vehicle groups were significantly elevated (P < 0.01). Purpurgallin dose-dependently reduced HMGB1 protein expression. Likewise, high dose purpurogallin reduced TNF-α and HMGB1 mRNA levels. In conclusion, purpurogallin exerts its neuroinflammation effect through the dual effect of inhibiting IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression and reducing HMGB1 protein and mRNA expression. This study supports purpurogallin could attenuate both proinflammatory cytokines and late-onset inflammasome in SAH induced vasospasm.International journal of vascular medicine 01/2014; 2014:254270. DOI:10.1155/2014/254270
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ABSTRACT: The etiology of neuroinflammation is complex and comprises multifactorial, involving both genetic and environmental factors during which diverse genetic and epigenetic modulations are implicated. Curcumin (Cur) and valproic acid (VPA), histone deacetylase 1 inhibitor, have neuroprotective effects. The present study was designed with an aim to investigate the ability of co-treatment of both compounds (Cur or VPA, 200 mg/kg) for 4 weeks to augment neuroprotection and enhance brain recovery from intra-peritoneal injection of (250 μg/kg) lipopolysaccharide-stimulated neuroinflammatory condition on rat brain cortex. Cortex activation and the effects of combined treatment and production of proinflammatory mediators, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), APE1, and nitric oxide/inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were investigated. Neuroinflammation development was assessed by histological analyses and by investigating associated indices [β-secretase (BACE1), amyloid protein precursor (APP), presenilin (PSEN-1), and PSEN-2)]. Furthermore we measured the expression profile of lethal-7 (let-7) miRNAs members a, b, c, e, and f in all groups, a highly abundant regulator of gene expression in the CNS. Protein and mRNA levels of neuroinflammation markers COX-2, BACE1, APP, and iNOS were also attenuated by combined therapy. On the other hand, assessment of the indicated five let-7 members, showed distinct expression profile pattern in the different groups. Let-7 a, b, and c disappeared in the induced group, an effect that was partially suppressed by co-addition of either Cur or VPA. These data suggest that the combined treatment induced significantly the expression of the five members when compared to rats treated with Cur or VPA only as well as to self-recovery group, which indicates a possible benefit from the synergistic effect of Cur-VPA combination as therapeutic agents for neuroinflammation and its associated disorders. The mechanism elucidated here highlights the particular drug-induced expression profile of let-7 family as new targets for future pharmacological development.Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 10/2014; 8:337. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2014.00337 · 4.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There has been an explosion of knowledge in the epigenetics field in the past 20 years. The first epigenetic therapies have arrived in the clinic for cancer treatments. In contrast, much of the promise of epigenetic therapies for non-cancerous conditions remains in the laboratories. The current review will focus on the recent progress that has been made in understanding the pathogenic role of epigenetics in immune and inflammatory conditions, and how the knowledge may provide much needed new therapeutic targets for many autoimmune diseases. Dietary factors are increasingly recognized as potential modifiers of epigenetic marks that can influence health and diseases across generations. The current epigenomics revolution will almost certainly complement the explosion of personal genetics medicine to help guide treatment decisions and disease risk stratification.Frontiers in Genetics 12/2014; 5:438. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2014.00438