The mouse beam walking assay offers improved sensitivity over the mouse rotarod in determining motor coordination deficits induced by benzodiazepines.
ABSTRACT The mouse rotarod test of motor coordination/sedation is commonly used to predict clinical sedation caused by novel drugs. However, past experience suggests that it lacks the desired degree of sensitivity to be predictive of effects in humans. For example, the benzodiazepine, bretazenil, showed little impairment of mouse rotarod performance, but marked sedation in humans. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the mouse beam walking assay demonstrates: (i) an increased sensitivity over the rotarod and (ii) an increased ability to predict clinically sedative doses of benzodiazepines. The study compared the effects of the full benzodiazepine agonists, diazepam and lorazepam, and the partial agonist, bretazenil, on the mouse rotarod and beam walking assays. Diazepam and lorazepam significantly impaired rotarod performance, although relatively high GABA-A receptor occupancy was required (72% and 93%, respectively), whereas beam walking performance was significantly affected at approximately 30% receptor occupancy. Bretazenil produced significant deficits at 90% and 53% receptor occupancy on the rotarod and beam walking assays, respectively. The results suggest that the mouse beam walking assay is a more sensitive tool for determining benzodiazepine-induced motor coordination deficits than the rotarod. Furthermore, the GABA-A receptor occupancy values at which significant deficits were determined in the beam walking assay are comparable with those observed in clinical positron emission tomography studies using sedative doses of benzodiazepines. These data suggest that the beam walking assay may be able to more accurately predict the clinically sedative doses of novel benzodiazepine-like drugs.
SourceAvailable from: Rabiu AbduSSALAM Magaji[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Caloric restriction and environmental enrichment have been separately reported to possess health benefits such as improvement in motor and cognitive functions. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound, has been reported to be caloric restriction mimetic. This study therefore aims to investigate the potential benefit of the combination of resveratrol as CR and EE on learning and memory, motor coordination, and motor endurance in young healthy mice. Fifty mice of both sexes were randomly divided into five groups of 10 animals each: group I animals received carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) orally per kg/day (control), group II animals were maintained on every other day feeding, group III animals received resveratrol 50mg/kg, suspended in 10 g/L of (CMC) orally per kg/day, group IV animals received CMC and were kept in an enriched environment, and group V animals received resveratrol 50mg/kg and were kept in EE. The treatment lasted for four weeks. On days 26, 27, and 28 of the study period, the animals were subjected to neurobehavioural evaluation. The results obtained showed that there was no significant change (𝑃 > 0.05) in neurobehavioural responses in all the groups when compared to the control which indicates that 50mg/kg of resveratrol administration and EE have no significant effects on neurobehavioural responses in young healthy mice over a period of four weeks.01/2014; 2014. DOI:10.1155/2014/545170
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ABSTRACT: Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor impairment and cognitive alterations. Hereditary HD is primarily caused by the expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the Huntingtin (Htt) gene, which results in the production of mutant huntingtin protein (mHtt) with an expanded amino-terminal polyglutamine (PolyQ) stretch. Besides pathological mHtt aggregation, reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, impaired neurotrophin signaling and compromised mitochondrial functions also contribute to the deleterious progressive etiology of HD. As a well-tolerated, FDA approved antidepressant, Amitriptyline (AMI) has shown efficacy in treating neurodegenerative murine models via potentiation of BDNF levels and amelioration of alterations in neurotrophin signaling pathways. In the present study, we observed profound improvements in the motor coordination of AMI-treated N171-82Q HD model mice. The beneficial effects of AMI treatment were associated with its ability to reduce mHtt aggregation, potentiation of the BDNF-TrkB signaling system and support of mitochondrial integrity and functionality. Our study not only provides pre-clinical evidence for the therapeutic potency of AMI in treating HD, but also represents an important example of the usefulness of additional pharmacogenomic profiling of pre-existing drugs for novel therapeutic effects with often intractable pathological scenarios. Copyright © 2014, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
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ABSTRACT: Systemic transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in rodents reduces functional impairment after cerebral ischemia. In light of upcoming stroke trials regarding safety and feasibility of NPC transplantation, experimental studies have to successfully analyze the extent of NPC-induced neurorestoration on the functional level. However, appropriate behavioral tests for analysis of post-stroke motor coordination deficits and cognitive impairment after NPC grafting are not fully established. We therefore exposed male C57BL6 mice to either 45 min (mild) or 90 min (severe) of cerebral ischemia, using the thread occlusion model followed by intravenous injection of PBS or NPCs 6 h post-stroke with an observation period of three months. Post-stroke motor coordination was assessed by means of the rota rod, tight rope, corner turn, inclined plane, grip strength, foot fault, adhesive removal, pole test and balance beam test, whereas cognitive impairment was analyzed using the water maze, the open field and the passive avoidance test. Significant motor coordination differences after both mild and severe cerebral ischemia in favor of NPC-treated mice were observed for each motor coordination test except for the inclined plane and the grip strength test, which only showed significant differences after severe cerebral ischemia. Cognitive impairment after mild cerebral ischemia was successfully assessed using the water maze test, the open field and the passive avoidance test. On the contrary, the water maze test was not suitable in the severe cerebral ischemia paradigm, as it too much depends on motor coordination capabilities of test mice. In terms of both reliability and cost-effectiveness considerations, we thus recommend the corner turn, foot fault, balance beam, and open field test, which do not depend on durations of cerebral ischemia.Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:338. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2014.00338 · 4.18 Impact Factor