Influence of breed, heterozygosity, and disease incidence on estimates of variance components of respiratory disease in preweaned beef calves.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to characterize genetic and environmental factors influencing bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle. Records from nine purebred and three composite breeds and a variety of F1 and three-way crosses, including the progeny of 12 additional different sire breeds produced over a 20-yr period (1983 to 2002), were evaluated for breed and heterozygosity effects on the observed incidence of BRD. Heterozygosity fractions for calves and dams were defined by generalized breed origins: British, Continental, and tropically adapted. Variance components were estimated for each pure and composite breed, and across all breeds and crossbreeds. The effect of incidence of observed BRD was determined by comparing groups of low and high years of incidence. Respiratory disease in this herd followed a standard epidemiological pattern of initial introduction, reaching an epidemic stage at 70 to 170 d of age, followed by a period of rapid decrease to weaning. Estimates of heritability of incidence of BRD were low, ranging from 0.00 to 0.26, with overall estimates of 0.07 and 0.19 depending on the data set analyzed. The highest incidence of BRD in preweaned calves occurred in the Braunvieh breed (18.8%). The genetic correlation between the direct and maternal genetic effects was generally large and negative, suggesting dams genetically superior for resisting BRD raise calves that are more susceptible. Perhaps maternally superior dams provide passive immunity to their calves, which delays the development of the calves' direct immune system, making them more prone to BRD during the preweaning period. Heterozygosity of calves decreased the incidence of BRD compared with purebred cattle. Calves that were Continental x British or tropically adapted x British breeds had a lower incidence of BRD than did calves of British x British breeds. As the annual incidence of BRD increased, there was an associated increase in the heritability estimate. The estimated heritability based on an underlying continuous scale was large (h2 = 0.48), inferring response to selection for BRD resistance could be large if the phenotype for BRD resistance was known.
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) was assessed in a population of 10,142 beef calves representing nine pure breeds and three composite populations born in 1983 through 1988. Twenty-four percent of the calves experienced at least one episode of respiratory disease during the 1st yr of life; frequencies over the six birth years ranged from 14 to 38%. The timing of respiratory disease outbreaks differed among birth years; in 4 of the 6 yr, more illness occurred in the pasture before weaning than in the feedlot after weaning. Frequencies of BRD during preweaning and postweaning periods were analyzed separately. Pure breeds and composite populations within a single preweaning location differed in frequency of illness during the preweaning period. However, not all possible breed comparisons could be made because preweaning location differed for the breed groups, and preweaning location had a significant effect on the frequency of respiratory disease in the preweaning period. The preweaning location effect did not carry through to the postweaning period. Pinzgauers had the highest BRD frequency within the feedlot (24.6%). The heritability estimates of BRD during the preweaning and postweaning periods did not differ significantly from 0 (.10 +/- .02 and .06 +/- .07, respectively). Although it is likely that response to selection for resistance to BRD would be slight using the animal's history of BRD as the selection criterion, including information on relatives or additional immune traits may improve the accuracy of an estimated breeding value for BRD resistance.Journal of Animal Science 08/1992; 70(7):2013-9. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although biosecurity practices play a role in minimizing respiratory disease in cattle, they must be used in combination with other management strategies that address the many other risk factors. Because the pathogens involved in bovine respiratory disease are enzootic in the general cattle population, biosecurity practices aimed at the complete elimination of exposure are currently impractical. Several animal husbandry and production management practices can be used to minimize pathogen shedding, exposure, and transmission within a given population, however. Various combinations of these control measures can be applied to individual farms to help decrease the morbidity and mortality attributed to respiratory disease.Veterinary Clinics of North America Food Animal Practice 04/2002; 18(1):57-77. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Birth and weaning weights adjusted for age of dam from four lines of Hereford cattle were analyzed to determine the relationships among grandmaternal, maternal, and direct genetic effects. Three lines were selected for 1) weaning weight (WWL), 2) yearling weight (YWL), and 3) an index of yearling weight and muscle score (IXL). The fourth line was an unselected control line (CTL). Numbers of observations ranged from 1,699 (CTL) to 2,811 (WWL), and number of animals in the pedigree file ranged from 2,266 to 3,192. Two animal models were used to obtain estimates by REML using an average information method. Model 1 included random direct and maternal genetic, permanent maternal environmental, and residual environmental effects, and fixed sex x year effects. Model 2 additionally included random grandmaternal genetic and permanent grandmaternal environmental effects. For birth weight, Models 1 and 2 gave almost identical estimates for direct and maternal heritability, and for the fraction of variance that was due to maternal permanent environmental effects. Estimates for grandmaternal heritability could be obtained only for IXL (.03) and CTL (.01). For weaning weight, estimates for direct heritability were similar from both models. Estimates for maternal heritability from Model 1 were .18, .20, .13, and .20, and corresponding estimates from Model 2 were .34, .31, .13, and .34 for WWL, YWL, IXL, and CTL, respectively. For IXL, estimates for variances that were due to grandmaternal genetic and grandmaternal permanent environmental variances could not be obtained and were set to zero. Grandmaternal heritability estimates for WWL, YWL, and CTL were .05, .09, and .12. Estimates of correlations between direct and maternal genetic effects were -.13, -.44, -.11, and -.26 for WWL, YWL, IXL, and CTL. Estimates of correlations between direct and grandmaternal genetic effects were .21, .83, and .55, and those between maternal and grandmaternal genetic effects were -.99, -.84, and -.76 for WWL, YWL, and CTL, respectively. These results indicate that grandmaternal effects may be important for weaning weight and that maternal heritability may be underestimated if grandmaternal effects are not included in the model.Journal of Animal Science 11/1998; 76(10):2521-7. · 2.09 Impact Factor