Reactive oxidant and p42/44 MAP kinase signaling is necessary for mechanical strain-induced proliferation in pulmonary epithelial cells.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester, New York, USA.
Journal of Applied Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.43). 10/2005; 99(3):1226-32. DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01105.2004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mechanical strain is necessary for normal lung growth and development. Individuals with respiratory failure are supported with mechanical ventilation, leading to altered lung growth and injury. Understanding signaling pathways initiated by mechanical strain in lung epithelial cells will help guide development of strategies aimed at optimizing strain-induced lung growth while mitigating ventilator-induced lung injury. To study strain-induced proliferative signaling, focusing on the role of reactive oxidant species (ROS) and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, human pulmonary epithelial H441 and MLE15 cells were exposed to equibiaxial cyclic mechanical strain. ROS were increased within 15 min of strain. N-acetylcysteine inactivated strain-induced ROS and inhibited p42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylation and strain-induced proliferation. PD98059 and UO126, p42/44 MAP kinase inhibitors, blocked strain-induced proliferation. To verify the specificity of p42/44 MAP kinase inhibition, cells were transfected with dominant-negative mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1 plasmid DNA. Transfected cells did not proliferate in response to mechanical strain. To determine whether strain-induced tyrosine kinase activity is necessary for strain-induced ROS-p42/44 MAP kinase signaling, genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was used. Genistein did not block strain-induced ROS production or p42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylation. Gadolinium, a mechanosensitive calcium channel blocker, blocked strain-induced ROS production and p42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylation but not strain-induced tyrosine phosphorylation. These data support ROS production and p42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylation being involved in a common strain-induced signaling pathway, necessary for strain-induced proliferation in pulmonary epithelial cells, with a parallel strain-induced tyrosine kinase pathway.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute lung injury (ALI) and its more severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), is characterized by acute inflammation, disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier, and in the organizing stage by alveolar pneumocytes hyperplasia and extensive lung fibrosis. The cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to the development of ALI/ARDS are not completely understood, but there is evidence that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by inflammatory cells as well as epithelial and endothelial cells are responsible for inflammatory response, lung damage, and abnormal repair. Among all ROS-producing enzymes, the members of NADPH oxidases (NOXs), which are widely expressed in different lung cell types, have been shown to participate in cellular processes involved in the maintenance of lung integrity. It is not surprising that change in NOXs' expression and function is involved in the development of ALI/ARDS. In this context, the use of NOX inhibitors could be a possible therapeutic perspective in the management of this syndrome. In this article, we summarize the current knowledge concerning some cellular aspects of NOXs localization and function in the lungs, consider their contribution in the development of ALI/ARDS and discuss the place of NOX inhibitors as potential therapeutical target.
    Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 05/2012; 69(14):2373-85. DOI:10.1007/s00018-012-1013-6 · 5.86 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hypercapnic acidosis may attenuate ventilator-induced lung oxidative stress injury and alveolar cell apoptosis, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We examined the effects of hypercapnic acidosis on the role of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), which activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 cascade in both apoptosis and oxidative reactions, in high-pressure ventilation stimulated rat lungs. Rats were ventilated with a peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) of 30 cmH2O for 4 h and randomly given FiCO2 to achieve normocapnia (PaCO2 at 35-45 mm Hg) or hypercapnia (PaCO2 at 80-100 mm Hg); normally ventilated rats with PIP of 15 cmH2O were used as controls. Lung injury was quantified by gas exchange, microvascular leaks, histology, levels of inflammatory cytokines, and pulmonary oxidative reactions. Apoptosis through the ASK1-JNK/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade in type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECIIs) were evaluated by examination of caspase-3 activation. The results showed that injurious ventilation caused significant lung injury, including deteriorative oxygenation, changes of histology, and the release of inflammatory cytokines. In addition, the high-pressure mechanical stretch also induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activation in the AECIIs. Hypercapnia attenuated these responses, suppressing the ASK1 signal pathways with its downstream kinase phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK, and caspase-3 activation. Thus, hypercapnia can attenuate cell apoptosis and oxidative stress damage in rat lungs during injurious ventilation, at least in part, due to the suppression of the ASK1-JNK/p38 MAPK pathways.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 14 October 2013; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2013.118.
    Laboratory Investigation 10/2013; 93(12). DOI:10.1038/labinvest.2013.118 · 3.96 Impact Factor
  • Source


Available from