Dietary antioxidants and exercise. J Sports Sci

Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Center for Exercise Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
Journal of Sports Sciences (Impact Factor: 2.25). 02/2004; 22(1):81-94. DOI: 10.1080/0264041031000140563
Source: PubMed


Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary antioxidants interact with endogenous antioxidants to form a cooperative network of cellular antioxidants. Knowledge that exercise-induced oxidant formation can contribute to muscle fatigue has resulted in numerous investigations examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human exercise performance. To date, there is limited evidence that dietary supplementation with antioxidants will improve human performance. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether regular vigorous exercise increases the need for dietary intake of antioxidants. Clearly, additional research that analyses the antioxidant requirements of individual athletes is needed.

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    • "The enhanced activity of antioxidant enzyme prolongs exercise performance and reduces physical fatigue [12]. Additional oral doses of antioxidants prevent or reduce oxidative stress, decrease muscle damage, and improve exercise performance [8] [13]. Searching natural antioxidants originated from plants against fatigue has been a hot topic. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cordyceps militaris has been used extensively as a crude drug and a folk tonic food in East Asia due to its various pharmacological activities. Our study aims to investigate the effect of Cordyceps militaris fruit body extract (CM) on antifatigue in mouse model. Two week CM administration significantly delayed fatigue phenomenon which is confirmed via rotating rod test, forced swimming test and forced running test. Compared to nontreated mouse, CM administration increased ATP levels and antioxidative enzymes activity and reduced the levels of lactic acid, lactic dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, and reactive oxygen species. Further data suggests that CM-induced fatigue recovery is mainly through activating 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways and regulating serum hormone level. Moreover, CM-enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK contributes to its antioxidant effect. Our data provides experimental evidence in supporting clinical use of CM as an effective agent against fatigue.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2015; 2015(1):174616. DOI:10.1155/2015/174616 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    • "By the reasons discussed in previous sections, the use of antioxidants with the aim to attenuate exercise-induced oxidative stress and related consequences is one of the controversial topics regarding application of dietary antioxidants especially in supplement form. Although major investigations have indicated that antioxidants could attenuate biomarkers of exercise-induced oxidative stress and the use of antioxidant and vitamin supplement is a common phenomenon among athletes and physically active people, there are however some doubts in relation to the advantages and disadvantages of these [6] [30] ; some investigations have reported beneficial effects but some others have indicated adverse outcomes following vitamin and antioxidant supplementation in athletes [31] . In the following, more important antioxidants commonly used as supplement during exercise training and the outcomes of these are discussed. "
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    ABSTRACT: Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during physical exercise, exercise induced oxidative stress and antioxidant supplementation is interesting and controversial concepts that have been considered during the past decades. In this review, we aimed to summarize current evidence in relation to antioxidant supplementation outcomes during exercise and physical activity. For this aim, we obtained relevant articles through searches of the Medline and PubMed databases between 1980 to 2013. Although major studies have indicated that antioxidants could attenuate biomarkers of exercise-induced oxidative stress and the use of antioxidant supplement is a common phenomenon among athletes and physically active people, there are some doubts regarding the benefits of these. It seems that the best recommendations regarding antioxidants and exercise are having a balanced diet rich in natural antioxidants and phytochemicals. Regular consumption of various fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes and beans, sprouts and seeds is an effective and safe way to meet all antioxidant requirements in physically active persons and athletes.
    Asian Journal of Sports Medicine 03/2015; 6(1):e24898. DOI:10.5812/asjsm.24898
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    • "In recent years, free radicals have been implicated as important modulators of biological processes, particularly with respect to processes involved in the regulation of skeletal and cardiac muscle mass [5] [6] [7] [8]. Oxidative stress is characterized by an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and their neutralization through antioxidant defence systems [9]. "
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    Pathophysiology 11/2014; 21(4). DOI:10.1016/j.pathophys.2014.05.003
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