Article

Activation of microglia by aggregated beta-amyloid or lipopolysaccharide impairs MHC-II expression and renders them cytotoxic whereas IFN-gamma and IL-4 render them protective.

Department of Neurobiology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot, Israel.
Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 3.73). 08/2005; 29(3):381-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.mcn.2005.03.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT 'Protective autoimmunity' refers to a well-controlled anti-self response that helps the body resist neurodegeneration. The response is mediated by autoimmune T cells, which produce cytokines and growth factors. Using an in vitro assay of hippocampal slices, we show that the cytokines interferon-gamma and (especially) interleukin-4, characteristic of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory T cells, respectively, can make microglia neuroprotective. Aggregated beta-amyloid, like bacterial cell wall-derived lipopolysaccharide, rendered the microglia cytotoxic. Cytotoxicity was correlated with a signal transduction pathway that down-regulates expression of class-II major histocompatibility proteins (MHC-II) through the MHC-II-transactivator and the invariant chain. Protection by interleukin-4 was attributed to down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and up-regulation of insulin-like growth factor I. These findings suggest that beneficial or harmful expression of the local immune response in the damaged CNS depends on how microglia interpret the threat, and that a well-regulated T-cell-mediated response enables microglia to alleviate rather than exacerbate stressful situations in the CNS.

Full-text

Available from: Adolfo Talpalar, Mar 05, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
73 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The emerging roles of microglia are currently being investigated in the healthy and diseased brain with a growing interest in their diverse functions. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that microglia are not only immunocentric, but also neurobiological and can impact neural development and the maintenance of neuronal cell function in both healthy and pathological contexts. In the disease context, there is widespread consensus that microglia are dynamic cells with a potential to contribute to both central nervous system damage and repair. Indeed, a number of studies have found that microenvironmental conditions can selectively modify unique microglia phenotypes and functions. One novel mechanism that has garnered interest involves the regulation of microglial function by microRNAs, which has therapeutic implications such as enhancing microglia-mediated suppression of brain injury and promoting repair following inflammatory injury. Furthermore, recently published articles have identified molecular signatures of myeloid cells, suggesting that microglia are a distinct cell population compared to other cells of myeloid lineage that access the central nervous system under pathological conditions. Thus, new opportunities exist to help distinguish microglia in the brain and permit the study of their unique functions in health and disease. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Brain 03/2015; 138(5). DOI:10.1093/brain/awv066 · 10.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating type of neurological trauma with limited therapeutic opportunities. The pathophysiology of SCI involves primary and secondary mechanisms of injury. Among all the secondary injury mechanisms, the inflammatory response is the major contributor and results in expansion of the lesion and further loss of neurologic function. Meanwhile, the inflammation directly and indirectly dominates the outcomes of SCI, including not only pain and motor dysfunction, but also preventingneuronal regeneration. Microglia and macrophages play very important roles in secondary injury. Microglia reside in spinal parenchyma and survey the microenvironment through the signals of injury or infection. Macrophages are derived from monocytes recruited to injured sites from the peripheral circulation. Activated resident microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages induce and magnify immune and inflammatory responses not only by means of their secretory moleculesand phagocytosis, but also through their influence on astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and demyelination. In this review, we focus on the roles of microglia and macrophages in secondary injury and how they contribute to the sequelae of SCI.
    Neural Regeneration Research 10/2014; 9(20):1787-1795. DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.143423 · 0.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: One of the most striking hallmarks shared by various neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. Increasing evidence indicates that microglial activation in the central nervous system is heterogeneous, which can be categorized into two opposite types: M1 phenotype and M2 phenotype. Depending on the phenotypes activated, microglia can produce either cytotoxic or neuroprotective effects. In this review, we focus on the potential role of M1 and M2 microglia and the dynamic changes of M1/M2 phenotypes that are critically associated with the neurodegenerative diseases. Generally, M1 microglia predominate at the injury site at the end stage of disease, when the immunoresolution and repair process of M2 microglia are dampened. This phenotype transformation is very complicated in AD due to the phagocytosis of regionally distributed β-amyloid (Aβ) plaque and tangles that are released into the extracellular space. The endogenous stimuli including aggregated α-synuclein, mutated superoxide dismutase, Aβ, and tau oligomers exist in the milieu that may persistently activate M1 pro-inflammatory responses and finally lead to irreversible neuron loss. The changes of microglial phenotypes depend on the disease stages and severity; mastering the stage-specific switching of M1/M2 phenotypes within appropriate time windows may provide better therapeutic benefit.
    Molecular Neurobiology 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12035-014-9070-5 · 5.29 Impact Factor