PU.1 protein expression has a positive linear association with protein expression of germinal centre B cell genes including BCL-6, CD10, CD20 and CD22: Identification of PU.1 putative binding sites in the BCL-6 promotor
ABSTRACT The transcription factor PU.1 has been shown to be crucial for the early stages of B cell development but its function at later stages of B cell development is less well known. We observed previously that PU.1 is expressed uniformly throughout the mature pre-plasma cell B cell population, the only exception being a subpopulation of germinal centre (GC) cells which showed exceptionally high expression of PU.1. This suggested that PU.1 may also have a role in GC B cell biology. To test this hypothesis and to screen for possible genes regulated by PU.1, we first evaluated semi-quantitatively the possible co-expression of PU.1 with proteins known to be upregulated or downregulated during GC B cell development. Normal lymphoid tissues and 255 B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas of putative GC B cell origin were evaluated. PU.1 expression was positively associated with CD10 (p < 0.0001), CD20 (p = 0.043), CD22 (p = 0.005), CD79a (p = 0.024) and Bcl-6 (p < 0.0001) and negatively associated with cytoplasmic immunoglobulin light-chain expression (p = 0.036) in diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Identical or nearly identical associations were found in follicular lymphoma. Since CD20 is known to be partly regulated by PU.1 and putative PU.1-binding sites have been described in the regulatory regions of the CD22, CD79a and CD10 genes, we looked for putative PU.1 binding sites in the BCL6 promotor. Four such putative PU.1 binding sites were identified. Further analysis by gel-shift electromobility essay showed that PU.1 protein binds to three of the four putative binding sites in the BCL6 promotor. PU.1 and Bcl-6 were also found to be upregulated in centroblasts in the normal GC, but jointly downregulated in a subpopulation of centrocytes. Our findings support the contention that PU.1 may also have an important role in GC B cell development.
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ABSTRACT: Transcription factors including PU.1, E2A and early B cell factor (EBF) are essential for the earliest stages of B lymphocyte development. Recent advances suggest that, although PU.1 initiates events leading to B lymphopoiesis, it might be dispensable at later stages of development. E2A proteins are also crucial for B cell lineage determination, as shown by the pluripotency of E2A-deficient progenitors. Both PU.1 and E2A are required for expression of EBF. EBF activates the early program of genes unique to B cells, including the lineage commitment factor Pax5. EBF also facilitates the function of Pax5 by mediating epigenetic changes necessary for the function of Pax5 at gene targets. Together, these proteins function in a hierarchy of factors that orchestrates B cell development.Current Opinion in Immunology 05/2006; 18(2):127-34. DOI:10.1016/j.coi.2006.01.007 · 7.87 Impact Factor
- The Journal of Pathology 09/2006; 210(1):130-1; author reply 132. DOI:10.1002/path.2031 · 7.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: B-cell post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are classified as early lesions, polymorphic lymphomas (P-PTLD) and monomorphic lymphomas (M-PTLD). These morphologic categories are thought to reflect a biologic continuum, although supporting genetic data are lacking. To gain better insights into PTLD pathogenesis, we characterized the phenotypes, immunoglobulin (Ig) gene alterations and non-Ig gene (BCL6, RhoH/TTF, c-MYC, PAX5, CIITA, BCL7A, PIM1) mutations of 21 PTLD, including an IM-like lesion, 8 P-PTLD and 12 M-PTLD. Gene expression profile analysis was also performed in 12 cases. All PTLD with clonal Ig rearrangements showed evidence of germinal centre (GC) transit based on the analysis of Ig and BCL6 gene mutations, and 74% had a non-GC phenotype (BCL6 +/- MUM1+). Although surface Ig abnormalities were seen in 6/19 (32%) PTLD, only three showed 'crippling' Ig mutations indicating other etiologies for loss of the B-cell receptor. Aberrant somatic hypermutation (ASHM) was almost exclusively observed in M-PTLD (8/12 vs. 1/8 P-PTLD) and all three recurrent cases analysed showed additional mutations in genes targeted by ASHM. Gene expression analysis showed distinct clustering of PTLD compared to B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHL) without segregation of P-PTLD from non-GC M-PTLD or EBV+ from EBV- PTLD. The gene expression pattern of PTLD appeared more related to that of memory and activated B-cells. Together, our results suggest that PTLD represent a distinct type of B-NHL deriving from an antigen experienced B-cell, whose evolution is associated with accrual of genetic lesions.Hematological Oncology 12/2008; 26(4):199-211. DOI:10.1002/hon.859 · 2.36 Impact Factor