Sonotubornetry: Eustachian tube ventilatory function test: A state-of-the-art review
ABSTRACT Disturbance of any of the ET functions may contribute to the development of otitis media. Sonotubometry measures the ventilatory function using sound. The qualities of sonotubometry as a test for eustachian tube ventilatory function have been studied by various investigators. The development of the method is described in the review, and a summary of the study results is provided to make an estimate of the diagnostic potential of this eustachian tube function test.
The English-language literature on the topic was searched systematically by Medline and Pubmed using the following key words: ventilatory function, eustachian tube, sonotubometry, and function test. There were no limits for the year of publication.
Articles that described the method itself (validity, reproducibility, diagnostic value) were studied in detail.
All the articles described in study selection were used for this review.
The technique of sonotubometry has been improved gradually over the years. The results of sonotubometry are at least as good as those of other function tests. However, because the results still tend to be ambiguous in children and otitis media is most common in this population, the reproducibility and application of sonotubometry must be evaluated further. Sonotubometry has great advantages over other function tests, but it is not used routinely to assess eustachian tube ventilatory function because its value for clinical practice has not yet been adequately demonstrated. The review showed that sonotubometry can be improved further and that efforts to do so seem justified because it forms a particularly promising method to assess eustachian tube function in children with suspected eustachian tube disease.
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ABSTRACT: Even though aural fullness is ubiquitous among patients presenting to otolaryngology clinics, the association between aural fullness and disease development has not yet been clearly determined. Our study was performed on outpatients from June 2006 to February 2010 whose major complaint was "ear fullness", "aural fullness", or "ear pressure". We assessed their demographic and clinical characteristics, including sex, associated diseases, symptoms, otoscopic findings, audiology test results, and final diagnoses. Among 432 patients, 165 (38.2%) were males and 267 (61.8%) were females, with mean ages of 42±19 years and 47±17 years, respectively. Tinnitus, hearing disturbance, autophony (p<0.01) as well as nasal obstruction and sore throat (p<0.05) showed a statistically significant correlation with aural fullness. Among patients who complained of hearing fullness, tests and measures such as impedance audiometry, speech reception threshold, and pure tone audiometry generated statistically significant results (p<0.05). Ear fullness was most frequently diagnosed as Eustachian tube dysfunction (28.9%), followed by otitis media with effusion (13.4%) and chronic otitis media (7.2%). However, 13.4% of patients could not be definitively diagnosed. Among patients complaining of ear fullness, Eustachian tube dysfunction, otitis media with effusion, chronic otitis media were most commonly observed. Performance of otoscopy, nasal endoscopy, the Valsalva maneuver, and additional audiological tests is necessary to exclude other diseases.Yonsei medical journal 09/2012; 53(5):985-91. DOI:10.3349/ymj.2012.53.5.985 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Beside arbitrary and not arbitrary active pressure equalization systems there is a passive equalization system via the Eustachian tube (ET) at pressure difference between the epipharyngeal space and the middle ear. Aim of this study was to characterize this passive equalization system in a hypobaric/hyperbaric pressure chamber by continuously measuring the tympanic impedance. In contrast to other studies, which are measured only in a hypobaric pressure chamber it is possible to include participants with Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD).Following a fixed pressure profile 39 participants were exposed to phases of pressure rising and decompression. By continuously measuring the tympanic impedance in the pressure chamber it was possible to measure data of the Eustachian Tube opening Pressure (ETOP), Eustachian Tube closing pressure (ETCP) and Eustachian Tube opening duration (ETOD). In addition it was possible to characterize the gradient of pressure during decompression, while the ET was open.Beside the measurement of the arithmetic average of the ETOP (30.2±15.1 mbar), ETCP (9.1±7.7 mbar) and ETOD (0.65±0.38 s) it was obvious that there are recurrent samples of pressure progression during the phase of tube opening. Generally it is possible to differentiate between the type of complete opening and partial opening.The fundamental characterization of the action of the passive tube opening, including the measurement of the ETOP, ETCP and ETOD, is a first step in understanding the physiological and pathophysiological function of the ET.Laryngo-Rhino-Otologie 07/2013; 92(9). DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1347175 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To describe for the first time a method of recording of Eustachian tube (ET) function by simultaneous and synchronous endoscopy and sonotubometry and explore its advantages compared with the performance of these tests independently. Observational study. Academic tertiary medical center. Eighteen healthy subjects. Endoscopic nasopharyngoscopy with simultaneous, synchronous sonotubometry. Each subject performed three maneuvers: pronouncing the constant "k", swallowing and yawning. The number of ET opening as a fraction of all efforts to open the tube, the duration of each opening and the sound intensity recorded by sonotubometry. Six (35.3%) of 17 subjects used for data analysis did not open their ET during swallowing. Excluding nonopeners, the ET opened in 3 of 4 of the swallows. The average duration of opening of the ET during swallowing was 0.44 seconds. The ET does not open every time the endoscopic view notes dilation. A negative sound pressure wave was recorded in a number of instances, immediately preceding a swallow-related opening. Contraction of the tensor veli palatini muscle was essential for ET opening. Simultaneous synchronous endoscopy and sonotubometry may improve the accuracy of either performed separately as an ET function measurement tool. Sonotubometry may prevent a false-positive endoscopy (ET viewed as open but no functional patency achieved). Endoscopy can lower the threshold considered as positive for sonotubometry. A negative pressure wave recorded by sonotubometry may reflect the ET role of clearing the middle ear of secretions toward the nasopharynx. This novel measurement technique provided additional evidence that the tensor veli palatini muscle provides the final opening action of the ET.Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology 02/2012; 33(2):184-91. DOI:10.1097/MAO.0b013e3182423242 · 1.60 Impact Factor