Rating the severity and character of transient cocaine-induced delusions and hallucinations with a new instrument, the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms for Cocaine-Induced Psychosis (SAPS-CIP)
ABSTRACT Cocaine can induce transient psychotic symptoms. We examined the phenomenology of such cocaine-induced psychosis (CIP) using a modified version of the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), a well-validated instrument for the assessment of schizophrenic psychosis.
We developed a new instrument, the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms for Cocaine-Induced Psychosis (SAPS-CIP), based on the well-validated SAPS. We interviewed 243 unrelated cocaine-dependent adults using both the SAPS-CIP and an instrument for the identification of cocaine-induced paranoia, the Cocaine Experience Questionnaire (CEQ).
One hundred and eighty-one (75%) of the subjects endorsed CIP using the CEQ. With the SAPS-CIP, hallucination (HAL) and delusion (DEL) scores correlated strongly, and the DEL domain showed excellent concurrent validity with the CEQ. We observed significant positive correlations, respectively, between severity of HAL and DEL, and lifetime number of episodes of cocaine use, and negative correlations with age at onset of cocaine use.
The results suggest that CIP consists of transient delusional and hallucinatory symptoms, which tend to occur together and co-vary in severity. It appears that rating cocaine-induced paranoia alone (e.g., with the CEQ) can identify most subjects experiencing CIP. However, the SAPS-CIP is useful for quantifying the severity of CIP according to operational criteria. Our data provide additional evidence that CIP is a sensitizing response.
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ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Cocaine use can induce transient psychotic symptoms that include suspiciousness, paranoia, hallucinations, and other cocaine-related behaviors. In this commentary, we provide an international perspective while reviewing the recent advances in epidemiology, clinical features, and risk factors related to cocaine-induced psychosis exhibited patients with cocaine use disorders. In some settings, the occurrence of cocaine-induced psychosis has been shown to be as high as 86.5%. Many risk factors have been linked with cocaine-induced psychosis, including: the quantity of cocaine consumed, lifetime amount of cocaine use, onset of cocaine dependence, years of use, routes of administration, other substance use disorder comorbidity, weight, gender, comorbidity with other medical and mental health disorders, genetics, and pharmacological interactions. Research has shown that the evaluation of cocaine-induced psychosis in patients with cocaine use is clinically relevant, especially in those patients who consume high amounts of cocaine, have a cannabis dependence history, have antisocial personality disorder, use administration routes other than intranasal, or exhibit ADHD comorbidity. Currently, the literature lacks information regarding the evolution of cocaine dependence or cocaine-dependent patients' risk for developing schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders. Furthermore, clinicians still do not have an evidence-based pharmacological approach to management of cocaine dependence available to them. Additional research is also needed regarding risk factors such as neurobiological markers and personality traits. Finally, we recommend the development of an integrative model including all of the risk factors and protective factors for cocaine-induced psychosis.Substance Abuse 06/2014; DOI:10.1080/08897077.2014.933726 · 1.62 Impact Factor
American Journal on Addictions 07/2009; 17(3). DOI:10.1080/10550490802019980 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cocaine, the third mostly commonly used illicit drug in the United States, has a wide range of neuropsychiatric effects, including transient psychotic symptoms. When psychotic symptoms occur within a month of cocaine intoxication or withdrawal, the diagnosis is cocaine-induced psychotic disorder (CIPD). Current evidence suggests those with CIPD are likely to be male, have longer severity and duration of cocaine use, use intravenous cocaine, and have a lower body mass index. Differentiating CIPD from a primary psychotic disorder requires a detailed history of psychotic symptoms in relation to substance use and often a longitudinal assessment. Treatment includes providing a safe environment, managing agitation and psychosis, and addressing the underlying substance use disorder. This review begins with a clinical case and summarizes the literature on CIPD, including clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, mechanism and predictors of illness, and treatment.Journal of Dual Diagnosis 04/2014; 10(2):98-106. DOI:10.1080/15504263.2014.906133 · 0.80 Impact Factor