Long-Term Consequences of Childhood Sexual Abuse by Gender of Victim

Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, California, United States
American Journal of Preventive Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.53). 06/2005; 28(5):430-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2005.01.015
Source: PubMed


Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a worldwide problem. Although most studies on the long-term consequences of CSA have focused on women, sexual abuse of both boys and girls is common. Thus, a comparison of the long-term effects of CSA by gender of the victim will provide perspective on the need for future research, prevention activities, and treatment of survivors.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted from 1995 to 1997 among 17,337 adult HMO members in San Diego, California. Participants completed a survey about abuse or household dysfunction during childhood, and multiple other health-related issues. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between severity of CSA (intercourse vs no intercourse) and long-term health and social problems (substance use and abuse, mental illness, and current problems with marriage and family) by gender of victim. Models controlled for exposure to other forms of adverse childhood experiences that co-occur with CSA. Among men, the relationship between the gender of the CSA perpetrator to the outcomes was also examined.
Contact CSA was reported by 16% of males and 25% of females. Men reported female perpetration of CSA nearly 40% of the time, and women reported female perpetration of CSA 6% of the time. CSA significantly increased the risk of the outcomes. The magnitude of the increase was similar for men and women. For example, compared to reporting no sexual abuse, a history of suicide attempt was more than twice as likely among both men and women who experienced CSA (p<0.05). Compared with those who did not report CSA, men and women exposed to CSA were at a 40% increased risk of marrying an alcoholic, and a 40% to 50% increased risk of reporting current problems with their marriage (p<0.05).
In this cohort of adult HMO members, experiencing CSA was common among both men and women. The long-term impact of CSA on multiple health and social problems was similar for both men and women. These findings strongly indicate that boys and girls are vulnerable to this form of childhood maltreatment; the similarity in the likelihood for multiple behavioral, mental, and social outcomes among men and women suggests the need to identify and treat all adults affected by CSA.

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Available from: David W Brown, May 10, 2014
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    • "Pearce, 2006; WHO, 2013), while other previous studies indicated that the rate was higher for females than males (e.g. Aboul-Hagag & Hamed, 2012; AlMadani, Bamousa, Alsaif, Kharoshah, & Alsowayigh, 2012; Dube et al., 2005; Dunne, Purdie, Cook, Boyle, & najman, 2003; Finkelhor, 1994; Hopper, 1998 "

    International journal of adolescence and youth 10/2015; DOI:10.1080/02673843.2015.1093008.
    • "Although past studies indicate that sexual compulsivity is a common coping mechanism primarily for male survivors of CSA (Opitz et al., 2009; Plant et al., 2005; Perera et al., 2009), the mediation model presented here was invariant across women and men. This finding supports a gender similarity hypothesis, whereby most of the long-term repercussions of CSA converge for both men and women (Dube et al., 2005; Maikovich-Fong & Jaffee, 2010). In the present study, however, although the structural relations among CSA, sexual compulsivity, and ESI did not differ across gender, mean differences revealed that, as compared to women, men reported more sexually compulsive thoughts and behaviors. "
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    ABSTRACT: We tested a mediation model in which the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) severity and extradyadic sexual involvement (ESI) is explained through sexual compulsivity. Participants were 669 adults currently involved in an intimate relationship who completed self-report questionnaires. Prevalence of ESI was 32% in women and 57% in men survivors, more than twice the rates among participants with no CSA history. Sexual compulsivity was significantly higher in participants with multiple extradyadic partners as compared to participants reporting only one extradyadic relationship, who nevertheless scored higher than participants reporting no extradyadic partner. The hypothesized structural equation model (SEM) was invariant across men and women and indicated CSA severity was positively and significantly associated with sexual compulsivity, which, in turn, predicted ESI. However, there was also a direct association between CSA and ESI. High CSA severity, directly and through high sexual compulsivity, led to the highest probability of ESI.
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    • "eriences of childhood sexual abuse have also been associated with depression , suicidal ideation , substance abuse and PTSD , which appear to be more common ; other psychiatric disorders include borderline personality disorder , dissociative identity disorder , pain disorders and bulimia nervosa ( Beitchman et al . , 1992 ; Briere & Runtz , 1990 ; Dube et al . , 2005 ; Finkelhor , Hotaling , Lewis , & Smith , 1989 ; Putnam , 2003 ; Sapp & Vandeven , 2005 ; Windle , Windle , Scheidt , & Miller , 1995 ) ."
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    ABSTRACT: Childhood abuse has been recognized as a precursor and a maintaining factor for adult psychopathology. There are very few studies that have investigated the incidence of childhood abuse in adult women with psychiatric disorders. Hence, this current investigation is an attempt to study and compare the incidence of childhood abuse (physical, emotional and sexual) among women seeking treatment for psychiatric disorders to healthy women. Using consecutive sampling, women seeking treatment for psychiatric disorders (N=609) and a group of age-education matched healthy women (N=100) were recruited for the study from a tertiary mental health-care hospital in India. The participants were screened for childhood abuse using the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool - Retrospective (ICAST)-R (I-CAST R, International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) and The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), 2009). Emotional abuse was significantly more common among women with psychiatric disorders compared with healthy women (p<0.05). On overall abuse, there was a trend to significance in women with psychiatric disorders compared with healthy women (p=0.07). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups on physical and sexual abuse (all p>0.13). There was no statistically significant difference in all three types of abuse across disorder categories, though the report was more among women with severe mental disorders. Women with psychiatric disorders reported more emotional and overall abuse compared with healthy women. Sexual and physical abuse was similar in both groups. It is likely that more emotional abuse predisposes these women to psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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