Expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in primary central nervous system neoplasms

Department of Neurology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.
Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology: AIMM / official publication of the Society for Applied Immunohistochemistry (Impact Factor: 2.06). 07/2005; 13(2):184-9. DOI: 10.1097/01.pai.0000138448.85231.da
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The cellular receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a member of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored protein family. It is a specific cell surface receptor for its ligand, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, which catalyzes the formation of plasmin from plasminogen to generate the proteolytic cascade and leads to the breakdown of the extracellular matrix. uPAR has been shown to correlate with a propensity to tumor invasion and metastasis in several types of non-central nervous system tumors. In this study, the authors examined the immunohistochemical expression of uPAR in 65 primary brain tumors (5 pilocytic astrocytomas, 5 diffuse astrocytomas, 6 anaplastic astrocytomas, 8 glioblastomas, 5 oligodendrogliomas, 4 oligoastrocytomas, 6 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, 4 gangliogliomas, 4 ependymomas, 5 medulloblastomas, 6 schwannomas, 5 meningiomas, 2 atypical meningiomas). The specimens were evaluated for intensity of immunostaining (0-3 scale), cellular localization of staining, and specific or unique patterns of staining. Some degree of uPAR expression was observed in all tumors. A significant positive correlation (P = 0.0006) between tumor grade and staining intensity was identified within the astrocytoma/glioblastoma subgroup, suggesting a possible correlation with anaplastic change and propensity to tumor invasion. Expression of uPAR in nonmalignant, noninvasive tumors such as schwannoma and meningioma suggests that uPAR may have other biologic functions in addition to promotion of tumor invasion.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protein degradation is an indispensable process for cells which is often deregulated in various diseases, including malignant conditions. Depending on the specific cell type and functions of expressed proteins, this aberration may have different effects on the determination of malignant phenotypes. A discrete, inherent feature of malignant glioma is its profound invasive and migratory potential, regulated by the expression of signaling and effector proteins, many of which are also subjected to post-translational regulation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Here we provide an overview of this connection, focusing on important pro-invasive protein signals targeted by the UPS.
    Cell Communication & Adhesion 09/2013; DOI:10.3109/15419061.2013.833192 · 1.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) receptor (uPAR) correlates with the malignant phenotype of various cancers. The soluble form of uPAR (s-uPAR) is present in the circulation of cancer patients, but the role of s-uPAR in endothelial cell migration is poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the role of tumor-associated s-uPAR on endothelial cell motility and angiogenesis. Here, we present evidence that tumor-associated s-uPAR augments the migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). When grown on tumor-conditioned medium, the membrane fraction of HUVECs had increased localization of s-uPAR onto its cell membrane. Colocalization studies for GM1 ganglioside receptor and uPAR further demonstrated s-uPAR recruitment onto lipid rafts of HUVECs. Immunoblot analysis for uPAR in lipid raft fractions confirmed s-uPAR recruiting onto HUVECs' membrane. Further, s-uPAR induced Rac1-mediated cell migration while either function-blocking uPAR antibodies or dominant-negative mutant Rac1 expression in HUVECs-mitigated s-uPAR-enhanced cell migration. In addition, orthotopic implantation of uPAR-overexpressing cells resulted in a significant increase in circulating s-uPAR in blood serum and invasive nature of tumor and tumor vasculature in mice. Collectively, this data provide insight into tumor-associated s-uPAR-directed migration of endothelial cells and its subsequent influence on tumor angiogenesis.
    06/2013; 2(6):e53. DOI:10.1038/oncsis.2013.19
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: EGFR is the most common genetically altered oncogene in glioblastoma (GBM), but small molecule EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have failed to yield durable clinical benefit. Here we show that in two novel model systems of acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs, elevated expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) drives signaling through the MAPK pathway, which results in suppression of the pro-apoptotic BCL2-family member protein BIM (BCL2L11). In patient-derived GBM cells and genetic GBM models uPA is shown to suppress BIM levels through ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which can be reversed by siRNA mediated knockdown of uPA. TKI-resistant GBMs are re-sensitized to EGFR TKIs by pharmacological inhibition of MEK or a BH3 mimetic drug to replace BIM function. A link between the uPA-uPAR-ERK1/2 pathway and BIM has not been previously demonstrated in GBM, and involvement of this signaling axis in resistance provides rationale for a new strategy to target EGFR TKI-resistant GBM. Copyright © 2014, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Research 11/2014; 75(2). DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-2004 · 9.28 Impact Factor