Ductal Lavage of Fluid-Yielding and Non–Fluid-Yielding Ducts in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers and Other Women at High Inherited Breast Cancer Risk

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention (Impact Factor: 4.13). 06/2005; 14(5):1082-9. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-04-0776
Source: PubMed


Nipple fluid production and atypical breast duct cells in women at high risk of breast cancer have been associated with further increased risk. Most publications on ductal lavage for cell collection report cannulating fluid-yielding ducts only. We report lavage of fluid-yielding and non-fluid-yielding ducts in women at high inherited breast cancer risk.
A pilot breast cancer screening study including ductal lavage was conducted in 75 women at high inherited risk, 56 (74.7%) of whom had BRCA1/2 mutations. Ductal lavage was attempted in any duct identifiable with a catheter.
Ducts were successfully catheterized in 60 of 75 patients (80%). Successfully catheterized patients were younger (median age 41 versus 53 years, P = 0.0003) and more often premenopausal (51.7% versus 20%, P = 0.041). Thirty-one successfully catheterized patients [51.6%, 95% confidence interval (39.4-63.9%)] had non-fluid-yielding ducts only. Seventeen patients [28.3% (18.5-40.9%)] had atypical cells. Twelve of seventeen [70.6% (46.8-87.2%)] samples with atypia were from non-fluid-yielding ducts. Patients with non-fluid-yielding ducts (versus fluid-yielding ducts) were more likely to have had prior cancer (48.4% versus 17.2%, P = 0.014) or chemotherapy (45.2% versus 17.2%, P = 0.027); this was also true in patients with atypia from non-fluid-yielding ducts.
Successfully lavaged women were younger and more often premenopausal. Atypical cells can be found in non-fluid-yielding ducts in patients at high inherited breast cancer risk. Non-fluid-yielding ducts, and atypia from non-fluid-yielding ducts, are more common in patients with prior cancer and chemotherapy. Larger studies are needed to identify risk factors and prognostic significance associated with atypia and non-fluid-yielding ducts in high-risk populations, and define their role as biomarkers.

Download full-text


Available from: Allison W Kurian, Jun 23, 2014
16 Reads
  • Source
    • "Younger age and premenopausal status are predictive of higher DL fluid yields and increased sample cellularity [27,28]. Furthermore, an inverse correlation exists between fluid-yielding status and previous treatment for breast or ovarian cancer with therapies likely to impair ovarian function, suggesting the importance of oestrogen in maintaining the proliferative status of the breast ductal epithelium [27]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Female germline BRCA gene mutation carriers are at increased risk for developing breast cancer. The purpose of our study was to establish whether healthy BRCA mutation carriers demonstrate an increased frequency of aberrant gene promoter hypermethylation in ductal lavage (DL) fluid, compared with predictive genetic test negative controls, that might serve as a surrogate marker of BRCA1/2 mutation status and/or breast cancer risk. The pattern of CpG island hypermethylation within the promoter region of a panel of four genes (RAR-beta, HIN-1, Twist and Cyclin D2) was assessed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction using free DNA extracted from DL fluid. Fifty-one DL samples from 24 healthy women of known BRCA mutation status (7 BRCA1 mutation carriers, 12 BRCA2 mutation carriers and 5 controls) were available for methylation analysis. Eight of 19 (42.1%) BRCA mutation carriers were found to have at least one hypermethylated gene in the four-gene panel. Two BRCA mutation carriers, in whom aberrant methylation was found, also had duct epithelial cell atypia identified. No hypermethylation was found in DL samples from 5 negative controls (p = 0.13). We found substantial levels of aberrant methylation, with the use of a four-gene panel, in the fluid from the breasts of healthy BRCA mutation carriers compared with controls. Methylation analysis of free DNA in DL fluid may offer a useful surrogate marker for BRCA1/2 mutation status and/or breast cancer risk. Further studies are required for the evaluation of the specificity and predictive value of aberrant methylation in DL fluid for future breast cancer development in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 02/2007; 9(1):R20. DOI:10.1186/bcr1657 · 5.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Another assumption was that the fluid yielding ducts would be the ones most likely to harbor atypical and malignant cells. On the contrary, several investigations [34-36] have demonstrated atypical cells in non-discharging ducts at a rate similar to their incidence in discharging ducts, and Khan and colleagues [37] showed that most ducts with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) did not produce NAF. These findings are not surprising since spontaneous serosanguinous or watery discharge represents in situ or invasive cancer only about 5% of the time. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Opportunities for the detection, prediction, and treatment of breast cancer exist at three biological levels: systemically via the blood, at the whole organ level, and within the individual ductal lobular structures of the breast. This review covers the evaluation of approaches targeted to the ductal lobular units, where breast cancer begins. Studies to date suggest the presence of 5 to 12 independent ductal lobular systems per breast, each harboring complex cellular fluids contributed by local and systemic processes. New techniques for accessing and interrogating these systems offer the potential to gauge the microenvironment of the breast and distill biological risk profiles.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 02/2006; 8(2):206. DOI:10.1186/bcr1410 · 5.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "However, the large numbers of women who have undergone risk-reducing BSO in our study may have reduced the overall breast cancer risk in our cohort. The majority of samples with atypia in our study (90%) were from FY ducts, in contrast to 29% reported by Kurian et al. [23]. It is difficult to postulate a biological explanation for this discrepancy but it is possible that it is due to a combination of the small numbers of samples with atypia in each study, in addition to the known difficulties in cytological interpretation. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to collect serial samples of nipple aspirate (NA) and ductal lavage (DL) fluid from women with germline BRCA1/2 mutations in order to create a biorepository for use in identifying biomarkers of breast cancer risk. Between March 2003 and February 2005, 52 women with germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations (median age 43 years, range 27 to 65 years) were scheduled for six-monthly NA, DL and venesection. DL was attempted for all NA fluid-yielding (FY) and any non-FY ducts that could be located at each visit. Twenty-seven (52%) women were postmenopausal, predominantly (19/27) from risk reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO). FY ducts were identified in 60% of all women, 76% of premenopausal women versus 44% of postmenopausal (P = 0.026). Eighty-five percent of women had successful DL. Success was most likely in women with FY ducts (FY 94% versus non-FY 71% (P = 0.049). DL samples were more likely to be cellular if collected from FY ducts (FY 68% versus non-FY 43%; P = 0.037). Total cell counts were associated with FY status (FY median cell count 30,996, range 0 to >1,000,000 versus non-FY median cell count 0, range 0 to 173,577; P = 0.002). Four women (8%) had ducts with severe atypia with or without additional ducts with mild epithelial atypia; seven others had ducts with mild atypia alone (11/52 (21%) in total). Median total cell count was greater from ducts with atypia (105,870, range 1920 to >1,000,000) than those with no atypia (174, 0 to >1,000,000; P <or= 0.001). It is feasible to collect serial NA and DL samples from women at high genetic risk of breast cancer, and we are creating a unique, prospective collection of ductal samples that have the potential to be used for discovery of biomarkers of breast cancer risk and evaluate the ongoing effects of risk reducing BSO. DL cellular atypia was not predictive of a current breast cancer and longer follow up is needed to determine whether atypia is an additional marker of future breast cancer risk in this population already at high genetic risk of breast cancer.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 11/2005; 7(6):R1122-31. DOI:10.1186/bcr1348 · 5.49 Impact Factor
Show more