Article

Newly diagnosed FHV infections: review in UK and Ireland

Chelsea and Westminster Healthcare NHS Trust, London SW10 9NH.
BMJ (online) (Impact Factor: 16.38). 07/2005; 330(7503):1301-2. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.38398.590602.E0
Source: PubMed
0 Followers
 · 
111 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background & objectives: Newly diagnosed HIV patients may be asymptomatic or present with a wide range of symptoms related to opportunistic infections, acute seroconversion illness or other medical illnesses. This study was designed to evaluate the socio-demographic parameters, spectrum of the presenting clinical conditions and concurrent immunological status of newly diagnosed HIV patients and document the WHO clinical stages at the time of HIV diagnosis. Methods: This cross-sectional, observational study was undertaken over a 12 month period at a tertiary referral hospital in eastern India. Three hundred sixty consecutive newly diagnosed HIV patients were selected for the study from the HIV clinic and medicine wards of this hospital. Demographic and clinical data and relevant laboratory investigations of the patients were recorded and analyzed. Results: Mean age of patients was 36.38 ± 10.62 yr, while 63.89 per cent were males. The main mode of transmission of HIV for males and females were unprotected exposure to commercial sex (139, 60.44%) and intercourse with HIV seropositive spouses (89, 68.46%), respectively. Fever (104, 28.89%), weight loss (103, 28.61%) and generalized weakness (80, 22.22%) were the predominant symptoms. Overall mean CD4 count was 176.04 ± 163.49 cells/μl (males 142.19 ± 139.33 cells/μl; females 235.92 ± 185.11 cells/μl). Overall, 224 opportunistic infections were documented in 160 patients, opportunistic diarrhoea (44, 12.22%) and pulmonary tuberculosis (39, 10.83%) being the commonest. There were 83 and 133 patients in WHO clinical stages 3 and 4, respectively; 291 (80.83%) patients were eligible for initiation of first-line antiretrovirals at presentation. Interpretation & conclusions: Advanced immunodeficiency and burden of opportunistic infections characterize newly diagnosed HIV patients in eastern India. The physicians should keep in mind that these patients may have more than one clinical condition at presentation.
    The Indian Journal of Medical Research 06/2014; 139(6):903-12. · 1.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Late presentation to testing, treatment and continued care has detrimental impacts on the health of HIV-positive individuals as well as their sexual partners' health. Men who have sex with men (MSM) experience disproportionately high rates of HIV both globally and in Brazil. However, the factors that inhibit linkage to care among MSM remain unclear. We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-positive MSM (n = 740) enrolled in HIV/AIDS services in a large urban center of Brazil from August 2010 to June 2011. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate statistics were conducted using STATA 12 to examine the relationship between a range of variables and late presentation, defined as having a first CD4 count <350 cells/mm3. Within the sample, the prevalence of LP was 63.1%. Men who self-identified as heterosexual (AOR 1.54 and 95% CI 1.08 - 2.20) compared to men who self-identified as homosexual and bisexual were at increased odds of late presentation. Additionally, men age 30 and older (AOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.01 - 2.43) compared to individuals age 18-29 experienced increased odds of late presentation among MSM. The prevalence of LP in this population was higher than noted in the global literature on LP among MSM. Heterosexual men and older age individuals experienced substantial barriers to HIV care. The stigma around same-sex behaviors and the current focus of HIV prevention and treatment campaigns on younger age individuals may limit patients' and providers' awareness of the risk for HIV and access to available services. In addition to addressing HIV-specific barriers to care, developing effective strategies to reduce late presentation in Brazil will require addressing social factors - such as stigma against diverse sexualities - to concretely identify and eliminate barriers to available services. Only in so doing can we make currently invisible people, visible.
    BMC Public Health 12/2014; 14(1):1313. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1313 · 2.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HIV prevention strategies are moving towards reducing plasma HIV RNA viral load in all HIV-positive persons, including those undiagnosed, treatment naïve, on or off antiretroviral therapy. A proxy population for those undiagnosed are patients that present late to care with advanced HIV. The objectives of this analysis are to examine factors associated with patients presenting with advanced HIV, and establish rates of treatment interruption and modification after initiating ART. We deterministically linked records from the Australian HIV Observational Database to the Australian National HIV Registry to obtain information related to HIV diagnosis. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with advanced HIV diagnosis. We used survival methods to evaluate rates of ART initiation by diagnosis CD4 count strata and by calendar year of HIV diagnosis. Cox models were used to determine hazard of first ART treatment interruption (duration >30 days) and time to first major ART modification. Factors associated (p<0.05) with increased odds of advanced HIV diagnosis were sex, older age, heterosexual mode of HIV exposure, born overseas and rural-regional care setting. Earlier initiation of ART occurred at higher rates in later periods (2007-2012) in all diagnosis CD4 count groups. We found an 83% (69, 91%) reduction in the hazard of first treatment interruption comparing 2007-2012 versus 1996-2001 (p<0.001), and no difference in ART modification for patients diagnosed with advanced HIV. Recent HIV diagnoses are initiating therapy earlier in all diagnosis CD4 cell count groups, potentially lowering community viral load compared to earlier time periods. We found a marked reduction in the hazard of first treatment interruption, and found no difference in rates of major modification to ART by HIV presentation status in recent periods.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 01/2015; 18(1):19463. · 4.21 Impact Factor