A 12-year prospective study of postinjury multiple organ failure: has anything changed?
ABSTRACT The incidence and severity of postinjury multiple organ failure (MOF) has decreased over the last decade.
A prospective 12-year inception cohort study ending December 31, 2003.
Regional academic level I trauma center.
One thousand three hundred forty-four trauma patients at risk for postinjury MOF. Inclusion criteria were aged older than 15 years, admission to the trauma intensive care unit, an Injury Severity Score higher than 15, and survival for more than 48 hours after injury. Isolated head injuries were excluded from this study. Previously identified risk factors for postinjury MOF were age, Injury Severity Score, and receiving a blood transfusion within 12 hours of injury.
Multiple organ failure was defined by a Denver MOF score of 4 or more for longer than 48 hours after injury. Multiple organ failure severity was defined by the maximum daily MOF score and the number of MOF free days within the first 28 postinjury days.
Multiple organ failure was diagnosed in 339 (25%) of 1244 patients. The mean age and Injury Severity Scores increased and the use of blood transfusion during resuscitation decreased over the 12-year study period. After adjusting for age, injury severity, and amount of blood transfused during resuscitation, there was a decreased incidence of MOF over the study period. Of the patients who developed MOF, there was a decrease in disease severity and duration as measured by the maximum daily MOF score and the MOF free days. Although the overall mortality rate remained constant, the MOF-specific mortality decreased.
The incidence, severity, and attendant mortality of postinjury MOF decreased over the last 12 years despite an increased MOF risk. Improvements in MOF outcomes can be attributed to improvements in trauma and critical care and are associated with decreased use of blood transfusion during resuscitation.
Article: The injured elderly: A rising tide.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Injury remains a public health challenge despite advances in trauma care. Periodic survey of injury epidemiology is essential to the trauma system's continuous performance improvement. We undertook this study to characterize the changes in Florida injury rates during the past 15 years. Injured patients were identified with the use of a statewide database over 15 years ending in 2010. Population data were obtained from the U.S. Census. Severe injury was defined by International Classification Injury Severity Scores less than 0.85. Injury rates were expressed in discharges per 100,000 residents. Trends were analyzed by linear regression. The 1.5 million patient discharges consisted of 5.2% children, 39.7% adults, and 55.1% elderly. The overall injury rate decreased in children by 18% but increased in adults by 2% and in the elderly by 17% during the study period. The proportion of severe injuries decreased in children and the elderly but did not change in adults. Injury patterns changed in all age groups. Injury in the elderly is increasing at a rate seven times that of adults. In 2010, the elderly accounted for only 17% of the population but 55% of injury-related discharges. These trends have dramatic implications for the design of future trauma systems and health care resource use.Surgery 08/2013; 154(2):291-8. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective The classical trimodal distribution of trauma deaths describes three peaks of deaths following trauma: immediate, early and late deaths. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether further maturation of the trauma centre and the improvement of survival have had an effect on the time of death distribution and resulted in a shift in causes of death. Methods All trauma patients from 1999 to 2010 who died after arrival in the emergency room and prior to discharge from the hospital were included. Deaths caused by drowning, poisoning and overdose were excluded. Results A total of 16,421 trauma patients were admitted to our hospital. 772 (4.7 %) patients died, of which 720 were included in this study. The trauma mechanism was predominantly blunt (94.7 %). 530 patients (73.6 %) had Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥25. The most frequent causes of death were central nervous system (CNS) injury (59.9 %), exsanguinations (12.9 %) and pneumonia/respiratory insufficiency (8.5 %). The first peak of death was seen in the first hour after arrival at the emergency department; subsequently, a rapid decline was observed and no further peaks were seen. Over the years, we observed a general decrease in deaths due to exsanguination (p = 0.035) and a general increase in deaths due to CNS injury (p = 0.004). Conclusion The temporal distribution of trauma deaths in our hospital changed as maturation of the trauma centre occurred. There is one peak of trauma deaths in the first hour after admission, followed by a rapid decline; no trimodal distribution was observed. Over time, there was a decrease in exsanguinations and an increase of deaths due to CNS injury.European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery 03/2013; · 0.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: To determine whether prehospital antiplatelet therapy was associated with reduced incidence of acute lung dysfunction, multiple organ failure, and mortality in blunt trauma patients. DESIGN:: Secondary analysis of a cohort enrolled in the National Institute of General Medical Sciences Trauma Glue Grant database. SETTING:: Multicenter study including nine U.S. level-1 trauma centers. PATIENTS:: A total of 839 severely injured blunt trauma patients at risk for multiple organ failure (age > 45 yr, base deficit > 6 mEq/L or systolic blood pressure < 90 mm Hg, who received a blood transfusion). Severe/isolated head injuries were excluded. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Primary outcomes were lung dysfunction (defined as grades 2-3 by the Denver multiple organ failure score), multiple organ failure (Denver multiple organ failure score >3), and mortality. Patients were documented as on antiplatelet therapy if taking acetylsalicylic acid, clopidogrel, and/or ticlopidine. Fifteen percent were taking antiplatelet therapy prior to injury. Median injury severity score was 30 (interquartile range 22-51), mean age 61 + 0.4 yr and median RBCs volume transfused was 1700 mL (interquartile range 800-3150 mL). Overall, 63% developed lung dysfunction, 19% had multiple organ failure, and 21% died. After adjustment for age, gender, comorbidities, blood products, crystalloid/12 hrs, presence of any head injury, injury severity score, and 12 hrs base deficit > 8 mEq/L, 12 hrs RBC transfusion was associated with a significantly smaller risk of lung dysfunction and multiple organ failure among the group receiving antiplatelet therapy compared with those not receiving it (lung dysfunction p = 0.0116, multiple organ failure p = 0.0291). In addition, antiplatelet therapy had a smaller risk (albeit not significant, p = 0.06) of death for patients receiving RBC compared to those not on antiplatelet therapy after adjustment for confounders, CONCLUSIONS:: Pre-injury antiplatelet therapy is associated with a decreased risk of lung dysfunction, multiple organ failure, and possibly mortality in high-risk blunt trauma patients who received blood transfusions. These findings suggest platelets have a role in organ dysfunction development and have potential therapeutic implications.Critical care medicine 12/2012; · 6.37 Impact Factor