Dosimetry of digital panoramic imaging. Part I: Patient exposure

Oral Imaging Centre, School of Dentistry, Oral Pathology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kapucijnenvoer 7, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology (Impact Factor: 1.39). 06/2005; 34(3):145-9. DOI: 10.1259/dmfr/28107460
Source: PubMed


To measure patient radiation dose during panoramic exposure with various panoramic units for digital panoramic imaging.
An anthropomorphic phantom was filled with thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD 100) and exposed with five different digital panoramic units during ten consecutive exposures. Four machines were equipped with a direct digital CCD (charge coupled device) system, whereas one of the units used storage phosphor plates (indirect digital technique). The exposure settings recommended by the different manufacturers for the particular image and patient size were used: tube potential settings ranged between 64 kV and 74 kV, exposure times between 8.2 s and 19.0 s, at fuse current values between 4 mA and 7 mA. The effective radiation dose was calculated with inclusion of the salivary glands.
Effective radiation doses ranged between 4.7 microSv and 14.9 microSv for one exposure. Salivary glands absorbed the most radiation for all panoramic units. When indirect and direct digital panoramic systems were compared, the effective dose of the indirect digital unit (8.1 microSv) could be found within the range of the effective doses for the direct digital units (4.7-14.9 microSv).
A rather wide range of patient radiation doses can be found for digital panoramic units. There is a tendency for lower effective doses for digital compared with analogue panoramic units, reported in previous studies.

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    • "The effective doses from the ProMax (37.8 µSv) and ProlineXC (27.6 µSv) direct digital panoramic units were higher than those from the Orthopantomograph OP100 (8.9 µSv) and ProlineXC (15.9 µSv) indirect units by using the head phantom (Table 7). Gijbels et al7 reported that comparable results (9.35 µSv for CCD, 8.1 µSv for storage phosphor) were found for the various digital panoramic units when the effective dose data of the direct panoramic units were averaged and compared with the indirect units. The effective doses from both types of digital panoramic unit evaluated in this study were larger than the results of Gijbels et al. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to provide comparative measurements of the effective dose from direct and indirect digital panoramic units according to phantoms and exposure parameters. Dose measurements were carried out using a head phantom representing an average man (175 cm tall, 73.5 kg male) and a limbless whole body phantom representing an average woman (155 cm tall, 50 kg female). Lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips were used for the dosimeter. Two direct and 2 indirect digital panoramic units were evaluated in this study. Effective doses were derived using 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations. The effective doses of the 4 digital panoramic units ranged between 8.9 µSv and 37.8 µSv. By using the head phantom, the effective doses from the direct digital panoramic units (37.8 µSv, 27.6 µSv) were higher than those from the indirect units (8.9 µSv, 15.9 µSv). The same panoramic unit showed the difference in effective doses according to the gender of the phantom, numbers and locations of TLDs, and kVp. To reasonably assess the radiation risk from various dental radiographic units, the effective doses should be obtained with the same numbers and locations of TLDs, and with standard hospital exposure. After that, it is necessary to survey the effective doses from various dental radiographic units according to the gender with the corresponding phantom.
    Imaging Science in Dentistry 06/2013; 43(2):77-84. DOI:10.5624/isd.2013.43.2.77
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    • "2 . 9 Digital/CranexTomeSoredex/70 kV/4 mA/15 s [40] "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. The aim of this study was to discuss the radiation doses associated with plain radiographs, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and conventional computed tomography (CT) in dentistry, with a special focus on orthodontics. Methods. A systematic search for articles was realized by MEDLINE from 1997-March 2011. Results. Twenty-seven articles met the established criteria. The data of these papers were grouped in a table and discussed. Conclusions. Increases in kV, mA, exposure time, and field of view (FOV) increase the radiation dose. The dose for CT is greater than other modalities. When the full-mouth series (FMX) is performed with round collimation, the orthodontic radiographs transmit higher dose than most of the large FOV CBCT, but it can be reduced if used rectangular collimation, showing lower effective dose than large FOV CBCT. Despite the image quality, the CBCT does not replace the FMX. In addition to the radiation dose, image quality and diagnostic needs should be strongly taken into account.
    International Journal of Dentistry 04/2012; 2012(18):813768. DOI:10.1155/2012/813768
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    • "The radiation dose of CBCT scanners is between 2 times (for the Accuitomo 3D ® ) and about 15 times (for the i-CAT ® extended FOV) higher as that of a traditional dental radiography unit. When converting the results by Gijbels et al. to the ICRP 103 tissue weighting factors, effective dose for the 5 panoramic scanners ranges between 3 and 8 ␮Sv [21]. Furthermore, CBCT dose levels appear to be in the same range as those of traditional tomography. "
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the effective dose levels of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for maxillofacial applications with those of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT). The effective doses of 3 CBCT scanners were estimated (Accuitomo 3D, i-CAT, and NewTom 3G) and compared to the dose levels for corresponding image acquisition protocols for 3 MSCT scanners (Somatom VolumeZoom 4, Somatom Sensation 16 and Mx8000 IDT). The effective dose was calculated using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), placed in a Rando Alderson phantom, and expressed according to the ICRP 103 (2007) guidelines (including a separate tissue weighting factor for the salivary glands, as opposed to former ICRP guidelines). Effective dose values ranged from 13 to 82 microSv for CBCT and from 474 to 1160 microSv for MSCT. CBCT dose levels were the lowest for the Accuitomo 3D, and highest for the i-CAT. Dose levels for CBCT imaging remained far below those of clinical MSCT protocols, even when a mandibular protocol was applied for the latter, resulting in a smaller field of view compared to various CBCT protocols. Considering this wide dose span, it is of outmost importance to justify the selection of each of the aforementioned techniques, and to optimise the radiation dose while achieving a sufficient image quality. When comparing these results to previous dosimetric studies, a conversion needs to be made using the latest ICRP recommendations.
    European journal of radiology 09/2009; 71(3):461-8. DOI:10.1016/j.ejrad.2008.06.002 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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