Diagnostic reliability of the Semi-structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism (SSADDA).
ABSTRACT The Semi-structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism (SSADDA) is a diagnostic instrument developed for studies of the genetics of substance use and associated disorders. The SSADDA provides more detailed coverage of specific drug use disorders, particularly cocaine and opioid dependence, than existing psychiatric diagnostic instruments. A computerized version of the SSADDA was developed to permit direct entry of subject responses by the interviewer. This study examines the diagnostic reliability of the SSADDA for substance use disorders and for other DSM-IV disorders that are commonly associated with substance use disorders.
Two hundred and ninety-three subjects (mean age = 39 yr, 52.2% women) were interviewed twice over a 2-week period in two sub-studies examining the inter-rater (n = 173) or test-retest reliability (n = 120) of the SSADDA. The kappa statistic and Yule's Y were used to measure reliability.
The reliability of most substance dependence diagnoses was good to excellent, although the reliability of substance abuse diagnoses was substantially lower. The reliability of the associated psychiatric diagnoses varied from fair to excellent.
The SSADDA yields reliable diagnoses for a variety of psychiatric disorders, including alcohol and drug dependence. Although developed for use in genetic studies, its broad and detailed coverage of disorders and computer-assisted format will allow it to be used in a variety of applications requiring careful diagnostic assessment.
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ABSTRACT: There is a large body of pre-clinical and some clinical data to link the neuropeptide galanin to a range of physiological and pathological functions that include metabolism, depression, and addiction. An enhancer region upstream of the human GAL transcriptional start site has previously been characterised. In-vitro transfection studies in rat hypothalamic neurons demonstrated that the CA allele was 40% less active than the GG allele in driving galanin expression. Our hypothesis was to investigate the effect of this galanin enhancer genotype on a range of variables that relate to the known functions of the galaninergic system in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort of young adults (N = 169–6,078). Initial findings showed a positive relationship of cannabis usage (OR = 2.070, P = 0.007, N = 406 (individuals who had used cannabis at least once within the last 12 months, total sample size 2731) with the GG haplotype, consistent with the previous published data linking galanin with an increased release of dopamine. As our sample size was relatively small we replicated the analysis in a larger cohort of 2,224 African Americans and 1,840 European Americans, but no discernible trend across genotypes was observed for the relationship with cannabis usage. Further, we found no association of the galanin enhancer genotype with any of the other pathophysiological parameters measured. These findings emphasise that preclinical data does not always predict clinical outcomes in cohort studies, noting that association studies are subject to multiple confounders. © 2014 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 12/2014; 165(8). DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.32270 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cocaine dependence (CD) and major depressive episode (MDE) frequently co-occur with poorer treatment outcome and higher relapse risk. Shared genetic risk was affirmed; to date, there have been no reports of genomewide linkage scans (GWLSs) surveying the susceptibility regions for comorbid CD and MDE (CD-MDE). We aimed to identify chromosomal regions and candidate genes susceptible to CD, MDE, and CD-MDE in African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs). A total of 1896 individuals were recruited from 384 AA and 355 EA families, each with at least a sibling-pair with CD and/or opioid dependence. Array-based genotyping of about 6000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms was completed for all individuals. Parametric and non-parametric genomewide linkage analyses were performed. We found a genomewide-significant linkage peak on chromosome 7 at 183.4 cM for non-parametric analysis of CD-MDE in AAs (lod=3.8, genomewide empirical p=0.016; point-wise p=0.00001). A nearly genomewide significant linkage was identified for CD-MDE in EAs on chromosome 5 at 14.3 cM (logarithm of odds (lod)=2.95, genomewide empirical p=0.055; point-wise p=0.00012). Parametric analysis corroborated the findings in these two regions and improved the support for the peak on chromosome 5 so that it reached genomewide significance (heterogeneity lod=3.28, genomewide empirical p=0.046; point-wise p=0.00053). This is the first GWLS for CD-MDE. The genomewide significant linkage regions on chromosomes 5 and 7 harbor four particularly promising candidate genes: SRD5A1, UBE3C, PTPRN2, and VIPR2. Replication of the linkage findings in other populations is warranted, as is a focused analysis of the genes located in the linkage regions implicated here.Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 08/2011; 36(12):2422-30. DOI:10.1038/npp.2011.122 · 7.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Because isolated populations offer relative genetic and environmental homogeneity, they are important resources for mapping genes for complex traits. Reliable and valid phenotypic characterization of the disease in the population studied is essential. We examined diagnostic reliability and concurrent validity of DSM-IV opioid dependence (OD) in a Hmong population in Thailand with historically high rates of opium (and heroin) use. 578 Thai-speaking Hmong individuals were assessed for lifetime OD, using Thai versions of both the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism (Thai SSADDA) and the Mini-Neuropsychiatric Interview (Thai MINI; adapted for lifetime diagnoses). In a subsample of 123 individuals, two raters interviewed each subject independently within a 2-week period. Chance-corrected agreement on the OD diagnosis was assessed between raters and instruments. Results showed excellent agreement for the DSM-IV diagnosis of OD both for the SSADDA (κ=0.97) and MINI (κ=1.00) and between the SSADDA and MINI (κ=0.97). Consistent with reliability assessments of English versions, our data demonstrate high reliability for Thai versions of the SSADDA and MINI in the diagnosis of OD. The high concordance between instruments supports the concurrent validity of the diagnosis. Either interview provides reliable, valid OD diagnoses in Thai-speaking Hmong individuals.Addictive behaviors 09/2010; 36(1-2):156-60. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.08.031 · 2.44 Impact Factor