Article

Comparison of basal neuropeptide Y and corticotropin releasing factor levels between the high ethanol drinking C57BL/6J and low ethanol drinking DBA/2J inbred mouse strains.

Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3270, USA.
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research (Impact Factor: 3.31). 06/2005; 29(5):721-9. DOI: 10.1097/01.ALC.0000164375.16838.F3
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recent genetic and pharmacological evidence indicates that low neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels in brain regions involved with neurobiological responses to ethanol promote increased ethanol consumption. Because of their opposing actions, it has been suggested that NPY and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) exert a reciprocal regulation on drug self-administration. It has been widely reported that inbred C57BL/6 mice consume significantly higher amounts of ethanol than do DBA/2 mice. Therefore, we used immunohistochemical techniques to determine if basal NPY and/or CRF levels differed in predicted directions between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice.
Ethanol-naive C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice were deeply anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (100 mg/kg) and perfused transcardially with 0.1 mM of phosphate-buffered saline followed by 4% paraformaldehyde in buffered saline. Brains were collected and postfixed for 4 hr at 4 degrees C and then were cut into 35-microm sections. Tissues containing the nucleus accumbens (NAc), hypothalamus, and amygdala were processed for NPY or CRF immunoreactivity using immunofluorescent or DAB techniques. Immunoreactivity was quantified from digital images using Image J software.
The C57BL/6J mice showed reduced NPY expression in the NAc shell, the basolateral amygdala, and the central nucleus of the amygdala when compared with DBA/2J mice. However, these strains did not differ in CRF expression in any of the brain regions analyzed.
These data suggest that low NPY levels in the amygdala and/or the shell of the NAc, which are not compensated for by similar changes in CRF levels, may contribute to the high ethanol consumption characteristic of C57BL/6J mice.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
46 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The current study investigated the effects of acute versus repeated periods of sleep deprivation on avoidance learning and spatial memory and on the expression of discrete biochemical brain signals involved in stress regulation, motivation and brain plasticity. Male Long–Evans rats were sleep deprived using the platform-over-water method for a single 4 h period (ASD) or for daily 4 h RSD period on five consecutive days (CSD). The Y maze passive avoidance task (YM-PAT) and the Morris water maze (MWM) were used to determine learning and memory 1 h following the last SD period. Region-specific changes in glucocorti-coid receptors (GR), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine 1 receptors (DRD1), phospho-CREB (pCREB) and Ki-67 expression were assessed in the hippocampal formation, hypothalamus and mesolimbic regions 72 h following RSD. Behaviorally, our findings revealed increased latency to re-enter the aversive arm in the YM-PAT and reduced distance traveled and latency to reach the platform in the MWM in ASD rats compared to all other groups, indicative of improved avoidance learning and spatial memory, respec-tively. Acute SD enhanced TH expression in the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and A11 neurons of the hypothalamus and DRD1 expression in the lateral hypothalamus. Cell proliferation in the subventricular zone and pCREB expression in the dentate gyrus and CA3 regions was also enhanced fol-lowing acute SD. In contrast, repeated SD significantly elevated GR-ir at the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and CA1 and CA3 layers of the hippocampus compared to all other groups. Our study supports that a brief 4 h sleep deprivation period is sufficient to induce delayed neurochemical changes.
    Behavioural brain research 11/2014; · 3.22 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BackgroundA growing body of literature suggests that epigenetic mechanisms, including histone acetylation, may play key roles in drug abuse and the development of addiction. Experiments in this study were designed to investigate the role of histone acetylation in ethanol (EtOH)-induced locomotor sensitization.Methods Immunohistochemical, Western blotting, and site-directed pharmacological techniques were used to explore the roles of histone acetylation at histone H3 (acH3K9) in both the expression of and acquisition of EtOH-induced locomotor sensitization. A commonly used sensitization protocol, in which animals were exposed to repeated injections of a low dose of EtOH while in their home cage, was used to examine this behavioral phenomenon. Additionally, site-directed administration of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) Trichostatin A (TSA), in the absence of repeated EtOH injections, was used to examine the role of hyperacetylation in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) shell in EtOH-induced locomotor sensitization.ResultsSensitized mice displayed elevated acH3K9 immunoreactivity (IR) localized to the shell of the NAC. This augmentation in acH3K9 IR was confirmed, in a separate experiment, using Western blot analyses. Next, repeated intra-accumbal infusions of TSA, in the absence of repeated EtOH injections, were sufficient to induce an augmented locomotor response to a later injection of a low dose (2.0 g/kg, intraperitoneally) of EtOH, indicative of cross-sensitization to this locomotor stimulation between TSA and EtOH. Finally, a local infusion of TSA into the shell of the accumbens was also associated with a significant increase in acH3K9 IR within this region.Conclusions Together, the present observations suggest that histone acetylation, particularly within the shell of the NAC, is important for the development and expression of EtOH-induced locomotor sensitization.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 07/2014; · 3.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abnormal function of the neuroendocrine stress system has been implicated in the behavioral impairments observed following brain ischemia. The current study examined long-term changes in stress signals regulation 30 days following global cerebral ischemia. Experiment 1 investigated changes in the expression of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and its subtype 1 receptor (CRHR1), glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was determined at the locus coeruleus (LC). Experiment 2 investigated the role of central CRHR1 activation on corticosterone (CORT) secretion at multiple time intervals following global ischemia after exposure to an acute stressor. Findings from Experiment 1 demonstrated a persistent increase in GR, CRH and CRHR1 immunoreactivity (ir) at the PVN, reduced GR and CRHR1 expression in pyramidal CA1 neurons, and increased LC TH expression in ischemic rats displaying working memory errors in the radial arm Maze. Findings from Experiment 2 revealed increased CORT secretion up to 7 days, but no longer present 14 and 21 days post ischemia. However upon an acute restraint stress induced 27 days following reperfusion, ischemic rats had increased plasma CORT secretions compared to sham-operated animals, suggesting HPA axis hypersensitivity. Antalarmin (2μg/2μl) pretreatment significantly attenuated post ischemic elevation of basal and stress-induced CORT secretion. These findings support persistent neuroendocrine dysfunctions following brain ischemia likely to contribute to emotional and cognitive impairments observed in survivors of cardiac arrest and stroke.
    Hormones and Behavior 01/2014; · 4.51 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
12 Downloads
Available from
Jun 1, 2014