The role of natural antibodies in atherogenesis.
ABSTRACT Atherosclerosis is now widely recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease that involves innate and adaptive immune responses. Both cellular and humoral components of the immune system have been implicated in atherogenesis. Natural antibodies can be considered humoral factors of innate immunity, and their functional role in health and disease has been reexamined in recent years. Natural antibodies exhibit a remarkably conserved repertoire that includes a broad specificity for self-antigens. For this reason, they are believed to be a product of natural selection and have been suggested to play an important role in "housekeeping" functions. Recent evidence has revealed that oxidation-specific epitopes are important and maybe immunodominant targets of natural antibodies, suggesting an important function for these antibodies in the host response to consequences of oxidative stress, for example, to the oxidative events that occur when cells undergo apoptosis. This review will focus on these recent findings and discuss the emerging evidence for an important role of natural antibodies in atherogenesis.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Glycerophospholipids represent a common class of lipids critically important for integrity of cellular membranes. Oxidation of esterified unsaturated fatty acids dramatically changes biological activities of phospholipids. Apart from impairment of their structural function, oxidation makes oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) markers of "modified-self" type that are recognized by soluble and cell-associated receptors of innate immunity, including scavenger receptors, natural (germ line-encoded) antibodies, and C-reactive protein, thus directing removal of senescent and apoptotic cells or oxidized lipoproteins. In addition, OxPLs acquire novel biological activities not characteristic of their unoxidized precursors, including the ability to regulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Effects of OxPLs described in vitro and in vivo suggest their potential relevance in different pathologies, including atherosclerosis, acute inflammation, lung injury, and many other conditions. This review summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms of formation, structures, and biological activities of OxPLs. Furthermore, potential applications of OxPLs as disease biomarkers, as well as experimental therapies targeting OxPLs, are described, providing a broad overview of an emerging class of lipid mediators.Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 09/2009; 12(8):1009-59. · 8.20 Impact Factor
Article: Effects of isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt on lipid parameters and atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic rabbits: a randomized double-blind study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is increasing interest in natural treatments to control dyslipidemia and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of soy yogurt fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and of dietary isoflavones on the lipid profile. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt, fermented with E. faecium CRL183, on lipid parameters and atherosclerosis development in rabbits with induced hypercholesterolemia. Forty-eight rabbits were randomly assigned to eight groups fed on the following diets for 60 days: C - control; IY - isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt; H - hypercholesterolemic (1.0% cholesterol wt/wt diet); HY - hypercholesterolemic plus soy yogurt; HIY - hypercholesterolemic plus isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt; HP - hypercholesterolemic plus placebo; HI - hypercholesterolemic plus isoflavone and HE - hypercholesterolemic plus pure culture of E. faecium CRL 183. Serum lipids and autoantibodies against oxLDL (oxLDL Ab) were analyzed on days 0, 30 and 60 of the treatment and the atherosclerotic lesions were quantified at the end of the experiment. Soy yogurt, soy yogurt supplemented with isoflavones and placebo promoted significant reductions in total cholesterol level (38.1%, 27.0% and 26.6%, respectively). Significant increases in serum HDL-C concentration relative to group H were detected in animals that ingested soy yogurt, with or without the isoflavone supplement (55.2%), E. faecium culture (43.3%) or placebo (35.8%). Intake of soy yogurt and soy yogurt supplemented with isoflavones prevented the rise of oxLDL Ab during the study period. The extent of atherosclerosis in the thoracic and abdominal aortas was reduced in the HIY, HY and HP groups. However, when the whole aorta was analyzed, animals treated with soy yogurt supplemented with isoflavones exhibited the greatest reduction (51.4%, P < 0.05) in atherosclerotic lesion area, compared to group H. Soy yogurt could be consumed as an alternative means of reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease by improving the lipid profile and inhibiting oxLDL Ab formation. Our findings also suggest that isoflavone supplementation may enhance the antiatherosclerotic effect of soy yogurt.Lipids in Health and Disease 10/2009; 8:40. · 2.17 Impact Factor
Article: Effect of the oxLDL binding protein Fc-CD68 on plaque extension and vulnerability in atherosclerosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is strong evidence that oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plays a critical role in atherogenesis and that oxLDL may profoundly influence the mechanical stability of atherosclerotic plaques. To block oxLDL, we designed, expressed, and tested Fc-CD68, a soluble oxLDL binding protein consisting of human Fc and the extracellular domain of the human oxLDL-binding receptor CD68. Fc-CD68 bound with high specific affinity to oxLDL and strongly bound and colocalized with oxLDL in plaques. To study the effects of repeated administrations of Fc-CD68 on the progression of atherosclerosis and plaque vulnerability, 12- and 16-week old cholesterol-fed ApoE(-/-) mice received either Fc-CD68 (n = 6) or Fc control protein (n = 6 to 8) thrice weekly for 4 weeks. Macroscopic and histological analysis of Sudan red lipid staining showed strong and significant reduction of plaque extension in the aorta and in the aortic root, respectively. Histological analysis of pentachrome- and Sirius-stained sections of the brachiocephalic arteries of 20 week-old ApoE(-/-) mice revealed that Fc-CD68 significantly reduced the occurrence of spontaneous ruptures of established plaques by ≈20%, compared with Fc and drastically increased the collagen content of plaques. Furthermore, in immunostained sections of the brachiocephalic artery and the aortic root, Fc-CD68 reduced the infiltration of plaques with T lymphocytes, and macrophages by ≈50% and 30%, respectively. The oxLDL binding protein Fc-CD68 attenuates atherosclerosis and strengthens the stability of atherosclerotic plaques.Circulation Research 02/2011; 108(6):695-703. · 9.49 Impact Factor