Characterization of chemical constituents in Scutellaria baicalensis with antiandrogenic and growth-inhibitory activities toward prostate carcinoma.
ABSTRACT Botanical preparations are widely used by patients with prostate cancer. Scutellaria baicalensis, a botanical with a long history of medicinal use in China, was a constituent of the herbal mixture PC-SPES, a product that inhibited prostate cancer growth in both laboratory and clinical studies. Due to the difficulties encountered when evaluating the efficacy of complex natural products, we sought to identify active chemical constituents within Scutellaria and determine their mechanisms of action.
We used high-performance liquid chromatography to fractionate S. baicalensis and identified four compounds capable of inhibiting prostate cancer cell proliferation; baicalein, wogonin, neobaicalein, and skullcapflavone. Comparisons of the cellular effects induced by the entire extract versus the four-compound combination produced comparable cell cycle changes, levels of growth inhibition, and global gene expression profiles (r(2) = 0.79). Individual compounds exhibited antiandrogenic activities with reduced expression of the androgen receptor and androgen-regulated genes. In vivo, baicalein (20 mg/kg/d p.o.) reduced the growth of prostate cancer xenografts in nude mice by 55% at 2 weeks compared with placebo and delayed the average time for tumors to achieve a volume of approximately 1,000 mm(3) from 16 to 47 days (P < 0.001).
Most of the anticancer activities of S. baicalensis can be recapitulated with four purified constituents that function in part through inhibition of the androgen receptor signaling pathway. We conclude that clinical studies evaluating the efficacy of these agents in the context of chemoprevention or the treatment of prostate cancer are warranted.
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ABSTRACT: In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of modulation of colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis by two natural products, baicalein and betaine, which have anti-inflammatory activities. Baicalein and betaine have been shown to provide various health benefits to organism in many ways. Baicalein is a phenolic flavonoid derived originally from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. From ancient times, baicalein has widely been used in oriental medicines as an anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapy. Betaine, trimethylglycine, is an essential biochemical molecule of the methionine/homocysteine cycle and is synthesized by conversion of choline. Betaine is an important human nutrient obtained from various foods including sugar beet and lycium. Betaine has provided various health benefits including disease prevention. However, the action mechanisms of their activity remain poorly understood. Recent studies reported the effects of baicalein and betaine on cytotoxicity against colon cancer cells and chemically induced colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis in mice. Administrations of baicalein and betaine containing diets significantly inhibited the incidence of tumors and hyperplasia with down-regulation of inflammation. Therefore, baicalein and betaine might be applicable to the prevention of inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis.Journal of cancer prevention. 09/2014; 19(3):153-60.
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ABSTRACT: Flavonoids are ubiquitous in nature. They are also in food, providing an essential link between diet and prevention of chronic diseases including cancer. Anticancer effects of these polyphenols depend on several factors: Their chemical structure and concentration, and also on the type of cancer. Malignant cells from different tissues reveal somewhat different sensitivity toward flavonoids and, therefore, the preferences of the most common dietary flavonoids to various human cancer types are analyzed in this review. While luteolin and kaempferol can be considered as promising candidate agents for treatment of gastric and ovarian cancers, respectively, apigenin, chrysin, and luteolin have good perspectives as potent antitumor agents for cervical cancer; cells from main sites of flavonoid metabolism (colon and liver) reveal rather large fluctuations in anticancer activity probably due to exposure to various metabolites with different activities. Anticancer effect of flavonoids toward blood cancer cells depend on their myeloid, lymphoid, or erythroid origin; cytotoxic effects of flavonoids on breast and prostate cancer cells are highly related to the expression of hormone receptors. Different flavonoids are often preferentially present in certain food items, and knowledge about the malignant tissue-specific anticancer effects of flavonoids could be purposely applied both in chemoprevention as well as in cancer treatment.Pharmacognosy Reviews 07/2014; 8(16):122-46.
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ABSTRACT: Chemical investigation on the CH2Cl2 fraction of the Scutellaria litwinowii Bornm. & Sint., Lamiaceace, root extract for the first time resulted in the isolation of wogonin, and neobaicalein. These compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity towards HeLa cell lines and lymphocytes. Meanwhile, the role of apoptosis was explored in this toxicity. The cells were cultured in RPMI medium and incubated with different concentrations of isolated flavonoids. Cell viability was quantified by MTS assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using propidium iodide staining of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry (sub-G1peak). Wogonin, and neobaicalein inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 values of 46.62 and 79.34 µM were, respectively, found for neobaicalein and wogonin against HeLa cells after 48 h of treatment. Neobaicalein induced a sub-G1 peak in the flow cytometry histogram of treated cells compared to control cells indicating that apoptotic cell death is involved in neobaicalein toxicity. Neobaicalein exerts cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects in HeLa cell lines and could be considered as a potential chemotherapeutic agent in cancer treatment.Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 04/2012; 22(2):268-276. · 0.80 Impact Factor