Clinical correlates of current level of functioning in primary care-treated bipolar patients.
ABSTRACT In this study we examined general assessment of functioning (GAF), and its relation to clinical and demographic factors in bipolar patients. A number of studies, mostly from specialized programs, show that bipolar disorder often leads to occupational and social impairment. Here we report data from patients in a primary care setting.
A total of 252 patients from the Maritime Bipolar Registry with DSM-IV diagnoses of bipolar I or bipolar II disorder participated in the study. GAF ratings during maintenance treatment were compared across clinical and demographic variables.
The mean GAF score in this sample was 67 +/- 17 (range 10-100). The GAF scores followed bimodal distribution with mean values of 50.5 +/- 10.3 and 79.0 +/- 10.3. Decreased functioning was found in patients with chronic illness course, history of rapid cycling, suicidal behaviour, psychiatric comorbidity, hypothyroidism, and diabetes mellitus, regardless of treatment of these conditions. There were no differences in the level of functioning between men and women, bipolar I and II patients, those with and without psychotic episodes, hypertension, treatment with antidepressants or antipsychotics.
Functioning in primary care-treated bipolar patients in maintenance phase of treatment is decreased not only due to specific disorder-related variables, but also due to frequent comorbidity with other psychiatric and medical conditions.
Article: Occupational outcome in bipolar disorder is not predicted by premorbid functioning and intelligence.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder (BD), over the long term, can manifest a variety of outcomes depending on a number of different conditions. There is a need for further knowledge regarding preventive factors as well as predictors of the disabling course of the disorder. Studies regarding the impact on functional outcome of premorbid and current general intellectual function [intelligence quotient (IQ)] and premorbid functioning in BD patients are sparse. The present study addressed the role of premorbid functioning [assessed with the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS)], intelligence, course of illness, and sociodemographics on occupational outcome in BD. METHODS: Bipolar disorder patients were recruited consecutively from psychiatric units (outpatient and inpatient) in four major hospitals in Oslo, Norway [(N = 226: 64.4% bipolar I disorder (BD-I); 30.1% bipolar II disorder (BD-II); 5.5% bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BD-NOS); 38.6% males]. The associations between current IQ, premorbid IQ [assessed using the National Adult Reading Test (NART)], PAS, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, and receipt of disability benefit were analysed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The number of hospitalizations for depressive episodes and illness duration was associated with a higher risk of receipt of disability benefit. PAS, premorbid and current IQ, as well as decline in IQ, did not explain the higher risk of receipt of disability benefits. CONCLUSIONS: Severe clinical course of BD was associated with receipt of disability benefit. Occupational outcome was unrelated to PAS, premorbid and current IQ, as well as decline in IQ. This suggests that the persistence of severe clinical symptoms, rather than global cognitive functioning, determines occupational outcome in BD and emphasizes the protective potential of early and continuous clinical treatment.Bipolar Disorders 03/2013; · 5.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rapid cycling (RC) affects 13-30% of bipolar patients. Most of the data regarding RC have been obtained in tertiary care research centers. Generalizability of these findings to primary care populations is thus questionable. We examined clinical and demographic factors associated with RC in both primary and tertiary care treated populations. Clinical data were obtained by interview from 240 bipolar I disorder (BDI) or bipolar II disorder (BDII) community-treated patients and by chart reviews from 119 bipolar patients treated at an outpatient clinic of a teaching hospital. Lifetime history of rapid cycling was present in 33.3% and 26.9% of patients from the primary and tertiary care samples, respectively. Among community-treated patients, lifetime history of RC was significantly associated with history of suicidal behavior and higher body mass index. There was a trend for association between RC and BDII, psychiatric comorbidity, diabetes mellitus, as well as lower age of onset of mania/hypomania. In the tertiary care treated sample there was a trend for association between lifetime history of RC and suicidal behavior. Tertiary versus primary care treated subjects with lifetime history of RC demonstrated markedly lower response to mood stabilizers. Lifetime history of RC is highly prevalent in both primary and tertiary settings. Even primary care treated subjects with lifetime history of RC seem to suffer from a more complicated and less treatment-responsive variant of bipolar disorder. Our findings further suggest relatively good generalizability of data from tertiary to primary care settings.Bipolar Disorders 07/2008; 10(4):495-502. · 5.29 Impact Factor