Bacopa Monniera, A reputed nootropic plant: An overview

Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
Phytomedicine (Impact Factor: 2.88). 05/2005; 12(4):305-17. DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2003.12.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Bacopa monniera (BM), a traditional Ayurvedic medicine, used for centuries as a memory enhancing, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, sedative and antiepileptic agent. The plant, plant extract and isolated bacosides (the major active principles) have been extensively investigated in several laboratories for their neuropharmacological effects and a number of reports are available confirming their nootropic action. In addition, researchers have evaluated the anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic and other pharmacological effects of BM preparations/extracts. Therefore, in view of the important activities performed by this plant, investigation must be continued in the recently observed actions described in this paper. Moreover, other clinical studies have to be encouraged, also to evidence any side effects and possible interactions between this herbal medicine and synthetic drugs.

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Available from: Francesca Borrelli, Jul 17, 2014
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    • "The pharmacological properties of Brahmi are mainly attributed to the presence of major bioactive saponins called 'bacosides' out of which bacoside A is a major chemical entity. It is shown to be responsible for the memory facilitating action of Brahmi (Russo & Borrelli 2005; Rajani 2008). Production of bacosides from plant tissue cultures is of immense importance as the drug content of the intact plant is very low, i.e. 0.2% (Tejavathi & Shailaja 1999). "
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of different abiotic elicitors [jasmonic acid, copper sulphate (CuSO4) and salicyclic acid] at varying concentrations on the stimulation of biomass and bacoside production in in vitro Bacopa monnieri shoot culture was studied. A systematic study conducted over a period of 35 days indicated that the maximum bacoside production (6.74 mg g(- 1) dry weight (DW)) was obtained after a lag of 7 days and thereafter, the content decreased gradually to again increase at 28 days (5.91 mg g(- 1) DW). Therefore, elicitation experiments were carried out over a period of 3, 6 and 9 days. The shoot cultures treated with 45 mg L(- 1) of CuSO4 exhibited the highest bacoside content of 8.73 mg g(- 1) DW (∼1.42-fold higher) than in control cultures (6.14 mg g(- 1) DW). This study indicates the effectiveness of abiotic elicitation on bacoside production in in vitro shoot cultures of this medicinally important herb known for its memory-enhancing properties.
    Natural Product Research 12/2014; 29(8):1-5. DOI:10.1080/14786419.2014.986657 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    • "In addition, a noticeable antifertility potential was recorded for a number of plant metabolites; among these are alkaloids, saponins, steroids, phenolic acids, and flavonoids [5] [6] [7] [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Reported researches dealing with either composition or bioactivity of Salsola imbricata are limited. This study was conducted aiming to investigate the phenolic composition of the plant and evaluate its efficacy as male contraceptive. Polyphenols, namely, phenolic acids and flavonoids, were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed by RP-HPLC in the hydrolysed methanol extract using two different wavelengths, 280 and 330 nm. The efficiency of different solvents in extracting the plant phenolics was assessed via spectrophotometric determination of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Acute toxicity study was carried out on the ethanolic extract to ascertain its safety prior to biological evaluation. The contraceptive effect was assessed, in male rats, by oral administration of the extract at two doses (250 and 500 mg/kg b. wt.), over a period of 65 days. HPLC analyses allowed the identification and quantification of a total of 13 and 8 components in the hydrolysed-methanol extract; the overall phenolic composition was dominated by quercitrin (12.692%) followed by coumaric acid (4.251%). Prolonged oral administration of the ethanolic extract caused slight reduction in the testis weight only. A significant decrease in the sperm count was observed in the two treated groups while significant decrease in the epididymal sperm motility was only observed in the high dose group. Morphological abnormalities were observed in sperms of treated animals. No distinct change in serum FSH, LH, and testosterone concentration was recorded. The histopathological findings supported to a high extent these results. The male contraceptive activity of Salsola imbricata could be ascribed to its phenolic components, especially quercitrin.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12/2014; 2014. DOI:10.1155/2014/695291 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    • "B. monniera (locally called Brahmi) has been used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat asthma, hoarseness, mental disorders, improve mental performance, nervine tonic, cardiotonic, and diuretic (Chopra et al., 1956). It also used for inflammation, pain, pyrexia, epilepsy, and as a sedative (Russo & Borrelli, 2005). The plant has been shown to possess a potent free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties (Tripathi et al., 1996). "
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Bacopa monniera L. (Scrophulariaceae) is used as a traditional medicine in India for various ailments such as epilepsy, mental disorders, and also as a cardio-tonic. However, its nephroprotective role is still unknown. Objective: The present study assesses the modulatory impact of the alcoholic (ethanol) extract of Bacopa monniera (AEBM) on renal oxido-lipidemic stress in hypercholesterolemic rats. Materials and methods: B. monniera (1 kg) was extracted with 90% ethanol, filtered, and dried (52 g). Group-I rats as control, Group-II rats fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) for 45 d [4% cholesterol and 1% cholic acid], Group-III rats fed with HCD for 45 d + AEBM (40 mg/kg, body weight) for last 30 d, and Group-IV AEBM alone rats. Blood and kidney were removed to analyze lipid, antioxidant status, and histological analysis. Result: The levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), phospholipids (PLs), renal functional parameters (urea, creatinine, and uric acid), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) products were significantly attenuated (p < 0.01) in AEBM-treated hypercholesterolemic rats. Activities of both enzymic (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR)) and non-enzymic antioxidant (GSH, Vit-C, and Vit-E) were significantly increased (p < 0.01), on supplementation with AEBM. Administration with AEBM the mRNA levels of eNOS and iNOS genes was significantly up-regulated and down-regulated (p < 0.01). Histomorphological observations also evidenced that AEBM effectively protects the kidney from hypercholesterolemia-mediated oxido-lipidemic damage. Discussion and conclusion: From this study, we hypothesized that AEBM can act as renoprotective agent by attenuating the renal oxido-lipidemic stress via regulating NOS level and thereby protects the nephron in hypercholesterolemic rats.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2014; 52(10). DOI:10.3109/13880209.2014.891142 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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