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    • "It is important to note the dramatic induction of Cyp1a1 detected by both the microarray analysis and TaqMan assay. Even though there are a number of reports on the study of modulation of CYPs by kava extract in rodents and humans (Anke and Ramzan, 2004a,b; Gurley et al., 2005; Mathews et al., 2002, 2005; Raucy, 2003; Russmann et al., 2005; Zou et al., 2002), none of them have reported that the Cyp1a1 gene was induced. It is known that the gene expression of Cyp1a1 is different from that of Cyp1a2 and 3a1 in that Cyp1a1 is primarily expressed in extrahepatic tissues and there is a low amount in the liver (Martignoni et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: The association of kava product use with liver-related risks has prompted regulatory action in many countries. We studied the changes in gene expression of drug metabolizing enzymes in the livers of Fischer 344 male rats administered kava extract by gavage for 14 weeks. Analysis of 22,226 genes revealed that there were 14, 41, 110, 386, and 916 genes significantly changed in the 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg treatment groups, respectively. There were 16 drug metabolizing genes altered in all three high-dose treatment groups, among which seven genes belong to cytochrome P450 isozymes. While gene expression of Cyp1a1, 1a2, 2c6, 3a1, and 3a3 increased; Cyp 2c23 and 2c40 decreased, all in a dose-dependent manner. Real-time PCR analyses of several genes verified these results. Our results indicate that kava extract can significantly modulate drug metabolizing enzymes, particularly the CYP isozymes, which could cause herb-drug interactions and may potentially lead to hepatotoxicity.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 02/2009; 47(2):433-42. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2008.11.037 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    • "In contrast, one in vivo study demonstrated inhibition of CYP1A2 (Russmann et al., 2005), whereas another one detected inhibition only for CYP2E1 but not for CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 (Gurley et al., 2005). These contradictory results substantiate the fact that the extrapolation of in vitro results on the in vivo situation always remains speculative. "
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    ABSTRACT: Root extracts from kava-kava (Piper methysticum G. Forst) are clinically used for the treatment of anxiety and restlessness. Due to reported cases of liver toxicity, kava-kava extracts were withdrawn from the market in several countries in 2002. Because the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is involved in the absorption, distribution, and excretion of many drugs and often participates in drug-drug interactions, we studied the effect of a crude kava extract and the main kavalactones kavain, dihydrokavain, methysticin, dihydromethysticin, yangonin, and desmethoxyyangonin on the P-gp-mediated efflux of calcein-acetoxymethylester in the P-gp-overexpressing cell line P388/dx and the corresponding cell line P388. The crude extract and the kavalactones showed a moderate to potent inhibitory activity with f2) (concentration needed to double baseline fluorescence) values of 170 microg/ml and 17 to 90 microM, respectively. The f2 value of yangonin could not be determined due to its higher lipophilicity. In conclusion, our results for the first time demonstrate P-gp-inhibitory activity of kava-kava and its components in vitro.
    Drug Metabolism and Disposition 12/2005; 33(11):1580-3. DOI:10.1124/dmd.105.005892 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reported adverse drug interactions with the popular herb kava have spurred investigation of the mechanisms by which kava could mediate these effects. In vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted to examine the effects of kava extract and individual kavalactones on cytochrome P450 (P450) and P-glycoprotein activity. The oral pharmacokinetics of the kavalactone, kawain (100 mg/kg), were determined in rats with and without coadministration of kava extract (256 mg/kg) to study the effect of the extract on drug disposition. Kawain was well absorbed, with >90% of the dose eliminated within 72 h, chiefly in urine. Compared with kawain alone, coadministration with kava extract caused a tripling of kawain AUC(0-8 h) and a doubling of C(max). However, a 7-day pretreatment with kava extract (256 mg /kg/day) had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of kawain administered on day 8. The 7-day pretreatment with kava extract only modestly induced hepatic P450 activities. The human hepatic microsomal P450s most strongly inhibited by kava extract (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4) were inhibited to the same degree by a "composite" kava formulation composed of the six major kavalactones contained in the extract. K(i) values for the inhibition of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 activities by methysticin, dihydromethysticin, and desmethoxyyangonin ranged from 5 to 10 microM. Kava extract and kavalactones (< or =9 microM) modestly stimulated P-glycoprotein ATPase activities. Taken together, the data indicate that kava can cause adverse drug reactions via inhibition of drug metabolism.
    Drug Metabolism and Disposition 10/2005; 33(10):1555-63. DOI:10.1124/dmd.105.004317 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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