Genetic linkage analysis of the X chromosome in autism, with emphasis on the fragile X region
ABSTRACT The higher prevalence of autism in males than in females suggests the possible involvement of the X chromosome. To test the hypothesis that there are mutations increasing susceptibility to autism on the X chromosome, and in particular the distal portion of the long arm that encompasses the FMRI and MECP2 loci, a genetic linkage study was performed. Twenty-two fragile X-negative families multiplex for autism and related disorders were used for the study. Linkage analysis, for markers in the Xq27-q28 region, using model-free likelihood-based analysis, produced a maximum MLOD of 1.7 for the narrowest diagnostic category of the typical autism/severe autism spectrum, and nonparametric analysis produced a maximum non-parametric lod (NPL) score of 2.1 for a broad phenotype diagnostic model. Thus, this study offers modest support for a susceptibility locus for autism within the Xq27-q28 region. Further genetic investigations of this region are warranted.
SourceAvailable from: Hsiao-Mei Liao[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by verbal communication impairments, social reciprocity deficits, and the presence of restricted interests and stereotyped behaviors. Genetic factors contribute to the incidence of ASD evidently. However, the genetic spectrum of ASD is highly heterogeneous. Chromosomal abnormalities contribute significantly to the genetic deficits of syndromic and non-syndromic ASD. In this study, we conducted karyotyping analysis in a sample of 500 patients (447 males, 53 females) with ASD from Taiwan, the largest cohort in Asia, to the best of our knowledge. We found three patients having sex chromosome aneuploidy, including two cases of 47, XXY and one case of 47, XYY. In addition, we detected a novel reciprocal chromosomal translocation between long arms of chromosomes 4 and 14, designated t(4;14)(q31.3;q24.1), in a patient with Asperger's disorder. This translocation was inherited from his unaffected father, suggesting it might not be pathogenic or it needs further hits to become pathogenic. In line with other studies, our study revealed that subjects with sex chromosomal aneuploidy are liable to neurodevelopmental disorders, including ASD, and conventional karyotyping analysis is still a useful tool in detecting chromosomal translocation in patients with ASD, given that array-based comparative genomic hybridization technology can provide better resolution in detecting copy number variations of genomic DNA. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 10/2013; 162(7):734-41. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.32153 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The X chromosome is generally understudied in association studies, in part because the analyst has had limited methodological options. For nuclear-family-based association studies, most current methods extend the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) to the X chromosome. We present a new method to study association in case-parent triads: the parent-informed likelihood ratio test for the X chromosome (PIX-LRT). Our method enables estimation of relative risks and takes advantage of parental genotype information and the sex of the affected offspring to increase statistical power to detect an effect. Under a parental exchangeability assumption for the X, if case-parent triads are complete, the parents of affected offspring provide an independent replication sample for estimates based on transmission distortion to their affected offspring. For each offspring sex we combine the parent-level and the offspring-level information to form a likelihood ratio test statistic; we then combine the two to form a combined test statistic. Our method can estimate relative risks under different modes of inheritance or a more general co-dominant model. In triads with missing parental genotypes, the method accounts for missingness with the Expectation-Maximization algorithm. We calculate non-centrality parameters to assess the power gain and robustness of our method compared to alternative methods. We apply PIX-LRT to publically available data from an international consortium of genotyped families affected by the birth defect oral cleft and find a strong, internally-replicated signal for a SNP marker related to cleft lip with or without cleft palate.Frontiers in Genetics 02/2015; 6:15. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2015.00015
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ABSTRACT: A preponderance of males with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been evident since the initial writings on the topic. This male predominance has consistently emerged in all ASD research to date in epidemiological as well as clinical populations. Despite this long recognized gender disparity in ASD, surprisingly there is a paucity of research addressing gender as it relates to core ASD symptom presentation. Gender differences may manifest with regard to symptom domains, severity, breadth, and so forth. The present review will discuss background (e.g., history, prevalence), assessment issues, gender differences in typically developing individuals in domains relevant to ASD, an in depth review of the literature base on the nature and etiology of gender differences in ASD, as well as future research directions and implications.Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 07/2011; 5(3):957-976. DOI:10.1016/j.rasd.2010.12.003 · 2.96 Impact Factor