Article

Decreased PARP and procaspase-2 protein levels are associated with cellular drug resistance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Erasmus MC/Sophia Children's Hospital, Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, Dr. Molewaterplein 60, 3015 GJ Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Blood (Impact Factor: 9.78). 09/2005; 106(5):1817-23. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2004-11-4296
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Drug resistance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with impaired ability to induce apoptosis. To elucidate causes of apoptotic defects, we studied the protein expression of Apaf-1, procaspases-2, -3, -6, -7, -8, -10, and poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in cells from children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; n = 43) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 10). PARP expression was present in all B-lineage samples, but absent in 4 of 15 T-lineage ALL samples and 3 of 10 AML cases, which was not caused by genomic deletions. PARP expression was a median 7-fold lower in T-lineage ALL (P < .001) and 10-fold lower in AML (P < .001) compared with B-lineage ALL. PARP expression was 4-fold lower in prednisolone, vincristine and L-asparaginase (PVA)-resistant compared with PVA-sensitive ALL patients (P < .001). Procaspase-2 expression was 3-fold lower in T-lineage ALL (P = .022) and AML (P = .014) compared with B-lineage ALL. In addition, procaspase-2 expression was 2-fold lower in PVA-resistant compared to PVA-sensitive ALL patients (P = .042). No relation between apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (Apaf-1), procaspases-3, -6, -7, -8, -10, and drug resistance was found. In conclusion, low baseline expression of PARP and procaspase-2 is related to cellular drug resistance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
69 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ever since its discovery 20 years ago, caspase-2 has been enigmatic and its function somewhat controversial. Although many in vitro studies suggested that caspase-2 was important for apoptosis, demonstrating an in vivo cell death role for this caspase has been more problematic, with caspase-2-deficient mice showing limited, tissue-specific cell death defects. Recent results from different laboratories suggest that at least one of its physiological roles in animals is to protect against cellular stress and transformation. As such, loss of caspase-2 augments tumorigenesis in some mouse models of cancer, assigning a tumour suppressor function to this enigmatic caspase. This review focuses on this seemingly non-apoptotic function of caspase-2 as a tumour suppressor and reconciles some of the recent findings in the field.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 28 June 2013; doi:10.1038/cdd.2013.87.
    Cell death and differentiation 06/2013; · 8.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although cure rate of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has surpassed 80%, drug resistance remains a major cause of treatment failure. We previously identified a panel of 33 genes differentially expressed in prednisolone sensitive versus resistant ALL cells from newly diagnosed children. Here we used bioinformatics to identify resistance genes most likely to contain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in their promoter region. The highest priority gene was SMARCB1, a core member of the SWI/SNF complex which promotes glucocorticoid effects through nucleosome remodeling. We identified several SNPs in the SMARCB1 promoter in lymphoblastoid cells from 90 individuals in the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) panel. Among these SNPs, the -228G>T SNP (allele frequency 9.4%) was the only one that significantly increased reporter activity in human ALL cell lines. Furthermore, we identified nuclear protein poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 1 (PARP1) as a nuclear protein binding to the SMARCB1 promoter and showed that the -228 SNP significantly altered PARP1 binding affinity. The -228G>T SNP altered SMARCB1 mRNA and protein levels and a positive association was found between the SMARCB1 mRNA level and both the -228 genotype and prednisolone sensitivity in CEPH cell lines. Finally, knockdown experiments performed in human ALL cell lines confirmed that lower SMARCB1 expression increased prednisolone resistance. In summary, we provide functional evidence that SMARCB1 is involved in prednisolone resistance and identified a promoter SNP that alters the level of SMARCB1 mRNA and protein expression and the binding of PARP1 to the SMARCB1 promoter.
    Human Molecular Genetics 11/2007; 16(19):2261-71. · 7.69 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is essential process in multicellular organisms. Apoptosis plays an important role in cell differentiation, damaged cell elimination, and immune system homeostasis. The review focuses on various mechanisms of signal transduction through caspase-2, which is thought to be one of the most enigmatic proteases involved in apoptosis. Caspase-2 is activated upon stimulation by various factors, including genotoxic stress, death receptor ligation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, metabolic changes, and a number of others. In addition, caspase-2 can act as a tumor suppressor and has been implicated in the cell response to oxidative stress and neurodegenerative progression during ischemic brain injury. Thus, the variety of pathways triggered by caspase-2 sets the enzyme apart from other members of the family and suggests a prominent role in apoptosis. The review analyzes the various functions of this unique caspase and discusses the possible applications of the available knowledge about it in modern oncology and medicine.
    Molecular Biology 47(2). · 0.64 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
3 Downloads
Available from
Aug 19, 2014