Dual-subtype vaccine (Fel-O-Vax FIV) protects cats against contact challenge with heterologous subtype B FIV infected cats.
ABSTRACT Fel-O-Vax FIV is a dual-subtype vaccine consisting of inactivated whole viruses of subtype A (Petaluma strain) and subtype D (Shizuoka strain). The efficacy of this vaccine against heterologous subtype A strain challenge was demonstrated, but it is unclear whether the result reflects efficacy in the field. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of this vaccine against contact challenge by exposing both vaccinated and unvaccinated control animals with cats infected with Aomori-2 strain belonging to subtype B, a subtype prevalent in many regions of the world. Nineteen specific-pathogen-free (SPF) cats were divided into a vaccinated group (six cats), an unvaccinated control group (eight cats), and a challenge group (five cats), and maintained in the same room. Cats were monitored for FIV proviral DNA by nested PCR and for FIV-specific antibody levels by ELISA. After 1 year of commingling, each cat in the vaccinated group was given a booster dose. In addition, the original challenge group was removed and replaced with another challenge group of SPF cats, which were inoculated with the Aomori-2 strain. FIV infection was confirmed in four of the eight animals in the unvaccinated control group by the 29th week in the second year of commingling. In contrast, all of the animals were negative in the vaccinated group. These findings confirmed the efficacy of this vaccine against heterologous stains classified as subtype B, and suggested that the vaccine exhibits broad efficacy against genetically diverse FIV.
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ABSTRACT: A HIV-1 tier system has been developed to categorize the various subtype viruses based on their sensitivity to vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies (NAbs): tier 1 with greatest sensitivity, tier 2 being moderately sensitive, and tier 3 being the least sensitive to NAbs (Mascola et al., J Virol 2005; 79:10103-7). Here, we define an FIV tier system using two related FIV dual-subtype (A+D) vaccines: the commercially available inactivated infected-cell vaccine (Fel-O-Vax(®) FIV) and its prototype vaccine solely composed of inactivated whole viruses. Both vaccines afforded combined protection rates of 100% against subtype-A tier-1 FIVPet, 89% against subtype-B tier-3 FIVFC1, 61% against recombinant subtype-A/B tier-2 FIVBang, 62% against recombinant subtype-F'/C tier-3 FIVNZ1, and 40% against subtype-A tier-2 FIVUK8 in short-duration (37-41 weeks) studies. In long-duration (76-80 weeks) studies, the commercial vaccine afforded a combined protection rate of at least 46% against the tier-2 and tier-3 viruses. Notably, protection rates observed here are far better than recently reported HIV-1 vaccine trials (Sanou et al., The Open AIDS J 2012; 6:246-60). Prototype vaccine protection against two tier-3 and one tier-2 viruses was more effective than commercial vaccine. Such protection did not correlate with the presence of vaccine-induced NAbs to challenge viruses. This is the first large-scale (228 laboratory cats) study characterizing short- and long-duration efficacies of dual-subtype FIV vaccines against heterologous subtype and recombinant viruses, as well as FIV tiers based on in vitro NAb analysis and in vivo passive-transfer studies. These studies demonstrate that not all vaccine protection is mediated by vaccine-induced NAbs.Vaccine 06/2013; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Conflicting accounts have been published in the veterinary literature regarding transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) between cohabiting cats in mixed households, and the mechanics of possible casual transmission, if it occurs, are poorly understood. Similarly, there are conflicting reports of vertical transmission of FIV. The aim of the present study was to document the FIV serological status of cats taken into two rescue shelters. At rescue shelter 1 (Rescue 1), cats cohabited in a multi-cat household of FIV-negative and naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats. A study was performed that combined a retrospective review of records of FIV serological status at intake (Test 1) and prospective FIV serological testing (Tests 2 and 3). Retrospective records were analyzed at rescue shelter 2 (Rescue 2), where FIV-positive queens with litters of nursing kittens were taken into the shelter, before being rehomed. FIV serology was performed on all kittens after weaning. Initial test results (Test 1) for 138 cohabiting cats from Rescue 1 showed that there were 130 FIV-negative cats and eight FIV-positive cats (six male neutered and two female spayed). A second test (Test 2), performed in 45 of the FIV-negative and five of the FIV-positive cats at median 28 months after Test 1 (range, 1 month to 8.8 years) showed that results were unchanged. Similarly, a third test (Test 3), performed in four of the original FeLV-negative cats and one remaining FIV-positive cat at median 38 months after Test 1 (range, 4 months to 4 years), also showed that results were unchanged. These results show a lack of evidence of FIV transmission, despite years of exposure to naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats in a mixed household. At Rescue 2, records were available from five FIV-positive queens with 19 kittens. All 19 kittens tested FIV-negative, suggesting that vertical transmission had not occurred.The Veterinary Journal 08/2014; · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Antibody testing based on individual risk assessments is recommended to determine feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) status, but neither ELISA nor Western blot tests can distinguish between anti-FIV antibodies produced in response to natural infection and those produced in response to FIV vaccination. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that FIV-infected cats could be differentiated from FIV-vaccinated uninfected cats using lymphocyte subset results, specifically the CD4%:CD8low% T-lymphocyte ratio. Comparisons of the CD4%:CD8low% T-lymphocyte ratio were made among the following four groups: Group 1 - FIV-infected cats (n = 61; FIV-antibody positive by ELISA and FIV PCR positive); Group 2 - FIV-uninfected cats (n = 96; FIV-antibody negative by ELISA); Group 3 - FIV-vaccinated uninfected cats (n = 31; FIV-antibody negative by ELISA before being vaccinated against FIV, after which they tested FIV ELISA positive); and Group 4 - FIV-uninfected but under chronic/active antigenic stimulation (n = 16; FIV-antibody negative by ELISA; all had active clinical signs of either upper respiratory tract disease or gingival disease for ≥ 21 days). The median CD4%:CD8low% T-lymphocyte ratio was lower in Group 1 (1.39) than in each of the other three groups (Group 2–9.77, Group 3–9.72, Group 4–5.64; P < 0.05). The CD4%:CD8low% T-lymphocyte ratio was also the most effective discriminator between FIV-infected cats and the other three groups, and areas under ROC curves ranged from 0.91 (compared with Group 4) to 0.96 (compared with Group 3). CD4%:CD8low% shows promise as an effective test to differentiate between FIV-infected cats and FIV-vaccinated uninfected cats.Veterinary Microbiology 06/2014; · 2.73 Impact Factor