Effect of an indwelling nasogastric tube on gastric emptying rates of liquids in horses
ABSTRACT To evaluate the effect of an indwelling nasogastric tube on gastric emptying of liquids in horses.
9 healthy adult horses.
A randomized block crossover design was used. For treatment group horses, a nasogastric tube was placed and 18 hours later, acetaminophen was administered; the nasogastric tube remained in place until the experiment was complete. For control group horses, a nasogastric tube was passed into t stomach, acetaminophen was administered, and the nasogastric tube was removed immediately. Serial blood samples were collected 15 minutes before and after administration of acetaminophen. Serum concentration of acetaminophen was determined by use of fluorescence polarization immunoassay. The variables, time to maximum acetaminophen concentration (Tmax) and the appearance constant for acetaminophen (Kapp), were determined. The values for Kapp and Tmax in horses with and without prolonged nasogastric tube placement were compared.
No significant difference was found in Kapp between horses with and without prolonged nasogastric tube placement; the median difference in Kapp was 0.01 min(-1) (range, -0.48 to 0.80 min(-1). No significant difference was found in Tmax between horses with and without prolonged nasogastric tube placement; the median difference in Tmax was 5 minutes (range, -30 to 50 minutes). Reanalysis of data following the removal of possible outlier values from 1 horse resulted in a significant difference in Tmax between horses with and without prolonged nasogastric tube placement.
Although no clinically important impact of 18 hours of nasogastric intubation was found on gastric emptying in healthy was found among horses.
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- "A new technique for collection of gastric contents in adult horses was developed and described in this study. Based on naso-gastric intubation, this technique was minimally invasive (Hydbring et al., 1996; Lammers et al., 2005) and horses tolerated the procedure well. However, the use of this technique is nonetheless complicated by the potential stimulatory effect of the naso-gastric tube and the possible depressing effect of sedation on gastric emptying. "
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to collect gastric contents from conscious horses via naso-gastric (NG) intubation to facilitate the study of the microbial ecosystem of the equine stomach. Six healthy Arabian horses (from 3 to 5 years old) were used according the following procedure. Two hours after the morning feeding, horses were sedated and restrained for NG intubation. A video-endoscope passed through a NG tube was used to position the NG tube in contact with the digesta. The video-endoscope was removed, the digesta were aspirated through the NG tube and collected. Each horse was sampled two times on 2 days according to the protocol. Volume, pH, temperature, dry matter (DM), total anaerobes and lactobacilli microbial populations, volatile fatty acids (VFA), ammonia (NH3), d-glucose and d-/l-lactate concentrations were measured on each sample. Repeatability and reproducibility were calculated for each variable. The technique allowed collection of 190±68ml of gastric contents during each sampling time, which provided the necessary quantities for the various analyses performed. Repeatability of the variables studied ranged from 0.39 for DM up to 0.90 for lactobacilli counts, whereas reproducibility ranged from 0.19 for volume to 0.89 for d-glucose concentration. Paired with classical endoscopic exam for equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) diagnosis, this collection technique can be easily used by scientists and veterinarians to study the relationship between some major chyme characteristics such as pH, microbial populations and lactate, and the occurrence of diseases such as EGUS.Animal Feed Science and Technology 02/2007; 133(3):259-274. DOI:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.04.004 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the effects of indwelling nasogastric intubation on the gastric emptying rate of liquid in horses. 6 healthy horses. Horses were assigned to treatment and control groups in a prospective randomized crossover study with a washout period of at least 4 weeks between trials. Acetaminophen (20 mg/kg) diluted in 1 L of distilled water was administered via nasogastric tube at time points of 0, 12, 30, 48, and 72 hours to evaluate the liquid-phase gastric emptying rate. In control horses, nasogastric tubes were removed after administration of acetaminophen. In horses receiving treatment, the tube was left indwelling and maintained for 72 hours. A 10-mL sample of blood was collected from a jugular vein immediately before and 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, and 180 minutes after acetaminophen administration. Serum acetaminophen concentrations were measured by use of a colorimetric method. Peak serum acetaminophen concentration was significantly higher in the control group (38.11 microg/mL) than in the treatment group (29.09 microg/mL), and the time required to reach peak serum acetaminophen concentration was significantly shorter in the control group (22.79 minutes) than in the treatment group (35.95 minutes). Results indicated that indwelling nasogastric intubation has a delaying effect on the gastric emptying rate of liquids. Veterinarians should consider the potential for delayed gastric emptying when placing and maintaining an indwelling nasogastric tube for an extended period of time after surgery. Repeated nasogastric intubation may be better than maintenance of an indwelling tube in horses with ileus.American Journal of Veterinary Research 08/2006; 67(7):1100-4. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.67.7.1100 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To develop a transcutaneous ultrasonography (TUS) method for measuring the location of the stomach during various levels of fluid distension and evaluate any correlation between gastric fluid distension and stomach position. 6 adult horses. Known volumes of water were administered in 2 trials. In trial 1, the stomach was evaluated prior to and after the administration of 2, 4, and 6 L of water. In trial 2, the stomach was evaluated after administration of 6, 8, 10, and 12 L of water. The TUS was performed at the 7th through 16th left intercostal spaces (ICSs). For each volume of water, an image was captured at the most dorsal point in each ICS where the dorsolateral aspect of the stomach wall was viewed. The distance between this point and a horizontal line drawn on the skin at the level of the elbow joint was measured. The measurements at all ICSs were used to estimate the gastric wall height at ICS 12, which was subsequently evaluated for statistical association with volume administered. Significant correlation between the estimated height of the stomach wall at ICS 12 and the volume of fluid administered was detected. A regression equation to estimate gastric fluid volume when initial values for gastric wall height (cm) at ICS 12 and fluid volume (L) are known was developed. Results suggested that use of TUS for gastric fluid volume estimation is a potentially useful technique.American Journal of Veterinary Research 03/2007; 68(2):153-7. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.68.2.153 · 1.21 Impact Factor