Insensitivity to transforming growth factor-beta results from promoter methylation of cognate receptors in human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP).
ABSTRACT Prostate cancers often develop insensitivity to TGF-beta to gain a growth advantage. In this study, we explored the status of promoter methylation of TGF-beta receptors (TbetaRs) in a prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP, which is insensitive to TGF-beta. Sensitivity to TGF-beta was restored in cells treated with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza), as indicated by an increase in the expression of phosphorylated Smad-2, type I (TbetaRI), and type II (TbetaRII) TGF-beta receptors, and a reduced rate of proliferation. The same treatment did not significantly affect a benign prostate cell line, RWPE-1, which is sensitive to TGF-beta. Mapping of methylation sites was performed by screening 82 potential CpG methylation sites in the promoter of TbetaRI and 33 sites in TbetaRII using methylation-specific PCR and sequence analysis. There were six methylation sites (-365, -356, -348, -251, -244, -231) in the promoter of TbetaRI. The -244 site was located in an activator protein (AP)-2 box. There were three methylated sites (-140, +27, +32) in the TbetaRII promoter and the -140 site was located in one of the Sp1 boxes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated DNA binding activity of AP-2 in the TbetaRI promoter and of Sp1 in the TbetaRII promoter after treatment with 5-Aza. To test whether promoter methylation is present in clinical specimens, we analyzed human prostate specimens that showed negative staining for either TbetaRI or TbetaRII in a tissue microarray system. DNA samples were isolated from the microarray after laser capture microdissection. Methylation-specific PCR was performed for TbetaRI (six sites) and TbetaRII (three sites) promoters as identified in LNCaP cells. A significant number of clinical prostate cancer specimens lacked expression of either TbetaRI and/or TbetaRII, especially those with high Gleason's scores. In those specimens showing a loss of TbetaR expression, a promoter methylation pattern similar to that of LNCaP cells was a frequent event. These results demonstrate that insensitivity to TGF-beta in some prostate cancer cells is due to promoter methylation in TbetaRs.
Article: TGF-β regulates DNA methyltransferase expression in prostate cancer, correlates with aggressive capabilities, and predicts disease recurrence.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) is one of the major factors mediating the methylation of cancer related genes such as TGF-β receptors (TβRs). This in turn may result in a loss of sensitivity to physiologic levels of TGF-β in aggressive prostate cancer (CaP). The specific mechanisms of DNMT's role in CaP remain undetermined. In this study, we describe the mechanism of TGF-β-mediated DNMT in CaP and its association with clinical outcomes following radical prostatectomy. We used human CaP cell lines with varying degrees of invasive capability to describe how TGF-β mediates the expression of DNMT in CaP, and its effects on methylation status of TGF-β receptors and the invasive capability of CaP in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we determined the association between DNMT expression and clinical outcome after radical prostatectomy. We found that more aggressive CaP cells had significantly higher TGF-β levels, increased expression of DNMT, but reduced TβRs when compared to benign prostate cells and less aggressive prostate cancer cells. Blockade of TGF-β signaling or ERK activation (p-ERK) was associated with a dramatic decrease in the expression of DNMT, which results in a coincident increase in the expression of TβRs. Blockade of either TGF-β signaling or DNMT dramatically decreased the invasive capabilities of CaP. Inhibition of TGF-β in an TRAMP-C2 CaP model in C57BL/6 mice using 1D11 was associated with downregulation of DNMTs and p-ERK and impairment in tumor growth. Finally, independent of Gleason grade, increased DNMT1 expression was associated with biochemical recurrence following surgical treatment for prostate cancer. Our findings demonstrate that CaP derived TGF-β may induce the expression of DNMTs in CaP which is associated with methylation of its receptors and the aggressive potential of CaP. In addition, DNMTs is an independent predictor for disease recurrence after prostatectomy, and may have clinical implications for CaP prognostication and therapy.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(9):e25168. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: GSTP1 DNA methylation and expression status is indicative of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine efficacy in human prostate cancer cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: DNA methylation plays an important role in carcinogenesis and the reversibility of this epigenetic modification makes it a potential therapeutic target. To date, DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) have not demonstrated clinical efficacy in prostate cancer, with one of the major obstacles being the inability to monitor drug activity during the trial. Given the high frequency and specificity of GSTP1 DNA methylation in prostate cancer, we investigated whether GSTP1 is a useful marker of DNMTi treatment efficacy. LNCaP prostate cancer cells were treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) either with a single high dose (5-20 µM), every alternate day (0.1-10 µM) or daily (0.005-2.5 µM). A daily treatment regimen with 5-aza-CdR was optimal, with significant suppression of cell proliferation achieved with doses of 0.05 µM or greater (p<0.0001) and induction of cell death from 0.5 µM (p<0.0001). In contrast, treatment with a single high dose of 20 µM 5-aza-CdR inhibited cell proliferation but was not able to induce cell death. Demethylation of GSTP1 was observed with doses of 5-aza-CdR that induced significant suppression of cell proliferation (≥ 0.05 µM). Re-expression of the GSTP1 protein was observed only at doses of 5-aza-CdR (≥ 0.5 µM) associated with induction of cell death. Treatment of LNCaP cells with a more stable DNMTi, Zebularine required at least a 100-fold higher dose (≥ 50 µM) to inhibit proliferation and was less potent in inducing cell death, which corresponded to a lack of GSTP1 protein re-expression. We have shown that GSTP1 DNA methylation and protein expression status is correlated with DNMTi treatment response in prostate cancer cells. Since GSTP1 is methylated in nearly all prostate cancers, our results warrant its testing as a marker of epigenetic therapy response in future clinical trials. We conclude that the DNA methylation and protein expression status of GSTP1 are good indicators of DNMTi efficacy.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(9):e25634. · 4.09 Impact Factor