Selenium status, pregnancy outcomes, and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1.
ABSTRACT Among HIV-infected pregnant women, low selenium status may increase risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV and poor pregnancy outcomes (low birthweight, small for gestational age, preterm birth, and fetal death) through several mechanisms, such as by promoting maternal HIV disease progression, viral shedding in the genital tract, and development of mastitis. However, there is no direct epidemiologic evidence on these relations among HIV-infected pregnant women.
To investigate the association between selenium status during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes, MTCT of HIV, and child mortality.
Baseline plasma selenium measurements from HIV-positive pregnant women (n = 670) were obtained between 12-27 weeks of gestation and mother-child pairs were followed prospectively until 24 months after delivery.
Low plasma selenium levels were associated with increased risks of fetal death, child death, and HIV transmission through the intrapartum route. Low selenium status was not associated with risks of low birthweight or preterm birth but was associated with an apparently lower risk of small for gestational age.
Adequate selenium status may be beneficial for some but not all pregnancy outcomes. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of selenium status in pregnancy outcomes, HIV transmission, and child health.
SourceAvailable from: Ebunoluwa Adejuyigbe[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background. Though micronutrients are vital in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection, most studies have been conducted in adults. Knowledge of the status of key micronutrients in HIV infected African children will indicate if supplementation may be beneficial to these children living in this resource-poor region. Objectives. We sought to determine the micronutrient status and associated factors of HAART-naïve HIV infected children and compare them with those of the HIV negative controls. Methods. We enrolled 70 apparently stable HAART naïve HIV infected children. Seventy age and sex matched HIV negative children were equally enrolled as the controls. Their social class, anthropometry, clinical stage, CD4 counts, serum zinc, selenium, and vitamin C were determined. Results. The prevalence of zinc, selenium, and vitamin C deficiency in HIV infected subjects was 77.1%, 71.4%, and 70.0%, respectively, as compared to 44.3%, 18.6%, and 15.7% in HIV negative controls. Among the HIV infected subjects, 58.6% were deficient in the three micronutrients. Micronutrient status was related to the weight, clinical, and immunological stages but not BMI or social class. Conclusion. Deficiency of these key micronutrients is widely prevalent in HAART naïve HIV infected children irrespective of social class. This suggests that supplementation trial studies may be indicated in this population.AIDS research and treatment 08/2014; 2014:351043. DOI:10.1155/2014/351043
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ABSTRACT: Selenium is a non-metallic chemical element of great important to human health. Low selenium levels in humans are associated with several pathological conditions and are a common finding in HIV infected individuals. We conducted a review of the literature to assess if selenium deficiency or selenium supplementation could play a role in modifying the clinical course of HIV disease. Several studies investigated the role of selenium in disease progression, morbidity and mortality in HIV infected individuals. Larger studies were conducted in countries with poor economic resources and limited access to HAART. According to the majority of published studies low selenium levels appear to have an association with mortality, and selenium supplementation appears to play a beneficial role on survival or on slowing disease progression among HIV infected individuals. The role of selenium supplementation on preventing hospital admission among HIV outpatients was also noticed. The literature suggests an association between selenium deficiency and development of HIV associated cardiomyopathy and furthermore, selenium supplementation appears to improve the cardiac function in HIV infected individuals with cardiomyopathy. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the role selenium in modifying HIV viral load and immune status in HIV infection.Infectious disease reports 08/2010; 2(2):e18. DOI:10.4081/idr.2010.e18
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ABSTRACT: A case-cohort study, within a multi-country trial of antiretroviral therapy (ART) efficacy (Prospective Evaluation of Antiretrovirals in Resource Limited Settings (PEARLS)), was conducted to determine if pre-ART serum selenium deficiency is independently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression after ART initiation. Cases were HIV-1 infected adults with either clinical failure (incident World Health Organization (WHO) stage 3, 4 or death by 96 weeks) or virologic failure by 24 months. Risk factors for serum selenium deficiency (<85 μg/L) pre-ART and its association with outcomes were examined. Median serum selenium concentration was 82.04 μg/L (Interquartile range (IQR): 57.28-99.89) and serum selenium deficiency was 53%, varying widely by country from 0% to 100%. In multivariable models, risk factors for serum selenium deficiency were country, previous tuberculosis, anemia, and elevated C-reactive protein. Serum selenium deficiency was not associated with either clinical failure or virologic failure in multivariable models. However, relative to people in the third quartile (74.86-95.10 μg/L) of serum selenium, we observed increased hazards (adjusted hazards ratio (HR): 3.50; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.30-9.42) of clinical failure but not virologic failure for people in the highest quartile. If future studies confirm this relationship of high serum selenium with increased clinical failure, a cautious approach to selenium supplementation might be needed, especially in HIV-infected populations with sufficient or unknown levels of selenium.Nutrients 11/2014; 6(11):5061-78. DOI:10.3390/nu6115061 · 3.15 Impact Factor