The long-term impact of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) on hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication has not yet been studied in HIV-HBV-co-infected patients.
We conducted a prospective study of HBV-DNA decay kinetics in 28 HIV-HBV-co-infected patients treated by TDF. HBV dynamics were studied using mixed linear models, and baseline factors affecting them were analysed using Cox models.
The HBV-DNA load declined by a mean of 4.6 log copies/ml during follow-up (mean 71 weeks), and fell below the detection limit (200 copies/ml) in 21 patients. Inhibition of viral replication by TDF was associated with a decrease in alanine aminotransferase levels (125 versus 68 IU, P < 0.05). HBV-DNA decay was biphasic, with an rapid fall followed by a gradual decline. Baseline factors associated with a steeper first slope in the HBV-DNA decrease were high HBV load, positive hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and YMDD mutations. Baseline factors increasing the time to reach an HBV-DNA level less than 200 copies/ml were high HBV load (150 days when HBV-DNA < 10 log, 316 days when HBV-DNA > 10 log) and positive HBeAg. Previous exposure to lamivudine or TDF-lamivudine did not modify HBV-DNA decrease under therapy in this population with a high prevalence of YMDD mutations.
The long-term decline in HBV DNA under TDF is biphasic and is primarily influenced by the initial HBV load. However, the clinical significance of such an association remains moderate, and TDF can be efficiently included in the highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen of HIV-HBV-co-infected patients, regardless of HBV strains and their degree of replication.
"It is another potent antiviral drug, which acts against HBV. Studies show that it suppresses HBV-DNA by 5.3 logs at a daily dosage of 300 mg for 48 weeks. Though cross-resistance of tenofovir with other HBV reverse transcriptase inhibitors have been observed, its clinical significance is not well-observed. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic hepatitis B is a disease of concern due to its life-threatening complications like cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in 20-40% of patients. There are about 400 million people affected worldwide with HBV, and over 300,000 die every year from HBV-related diseases. Oral antivirals like lamivudine, adefovir, entecavir, and tenofovir are commonly used to treat chronic hepatitis B. In this study, we tried to evaluate the comparative efficacy of these drugs alone and in combination.
Chronic hepatitis B patients with HBV-DNA more than 10⁴Copies/mL irrespective of their HBeAg status (n=60) were enrolled in a prospective study. 21, 20, and 19 patients were treated with lamivudine (100 mg/day) plus adefovir (10 mg/day) combination entecavir monotherapy (0.5 mg/day) and tenofovir monotherapy (300 mg/day), respectively and were followed up for 24 weeks with their virological, serological, and biochemical markers measured at 12 and 24 weeks.
After 24 weeks of treatment, there was no significant difference between the 3 groups in suppressing HBV-DNA to undetectable levels. The median decrease in HBV-DNA levels from baseline was better with tenofovir and entecavir monotherapies than lamivudine and adefovir combination, which was statistically significant. There was no significant difference between the 3 groups in HBsAg and HBeAg seroconversion and normalization of biochemical parameters.
Entecavir and tenofovir monotherapy were found to be more effective than lamivudine plus adefovir combination in reducing the HBV-DNA levels. However, lamivudine plus adefovir combination was not too inferior, especially when cost of treatment was taken into consideration.
Journal of laboratory physicians 03/2012; 4(1):10-6. DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.98664
"Thus due to the potential association of the triple 3TC mutations (M204V+ L180M+ V173L+) with vaccine escape mutants, the continuous surveillance of resistance mutants is necessary in a country with a national HBV vaccination programme [22,23]. Additionally, with the decline in HIV-associated morbidity and mortality following the introduction of HAART, there is a need for screening of HIV patients for underlying viral hepatitis co-infection and the provision of management and treatment recommendations for patients with chronic viral hepatitis in preventing the development of liver disease. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lamivudine (3TC) is a potent inhibitor of both Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) replication and is part of first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the Gambia. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of 3TC against HBV is limited by the emergence of resistant strains.
The aim of this retrospective study was to characterise 3TC-resistant mutations in HBV from co-infected patients receiving HAART, by generating HBV polymerase sequence data and viral loads from HBV genotype E infected patients, both at initiation and during a course of 3TC therapy.
Samples from 21 HBV chronic carriers co-infected with HIV-1 (n = 18), HIV-2 (n = 2) and HIV-dual (n = 1) receiving HAART for a period of 6-52 months were analysed for the emergence of 3TC-resistance mutations.
Sixteen out of 21 HBV/HIV co-infected patients responded well to HAART treatment maintaining suppression of HBV viraemia to low (≤ 104 copies/mL) (n = 5) or undetectable levels (< 260 copies/ml) (n = 11). Out of the 5 non-responders, 3 had developed 3TC-resistant HBV strains showing mutations in the YMDD motif at position 204 of the RT domain of the HBV polymerase. One patient showed the M204V+ L180M+ V173L+ triple mutation associated with a vaccine escape phenotype, which could be of public health concern in a country with a national HBV vaccination programme. All except one patient was infected with HBV genotype E.
Our findings confirm the risk of 3TC mutations in HAART patients following monotherapy. This is a novel study on 3TC resistance in HBV genotype E patients and encourage the use of tenofovir (in association with 3TC), which has not shown unequivocally documented HBV resistance to date, as part of first-line therapy in HIV/HBV co-infected patients in West Africa.HBV- hepatitis B infection; HIV- human immunodeficiency virus; HAART- antiretroviral therapy.
BMC Research Notes 12/2011; 4(1):561. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-4-561
"Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), a new nucleotide analogue licensed in 2008 for the treatment of HBV infections in Europe and the United States , also exhibits an efficacious activity against wild type and LAM-resistant HBV, both in vitro and in vivo[12,13]. Randomized clinical trials have shown that TDF is more potent than ADV in inhibiting HBV replication in patients with chronic hepatitis . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic viral hepatitis B remains a global public health concern. Currently, several drugs, such as tenofovir and adefovir, are recommended for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B. tenofovir is a nucleoside analog with selective activity against hepatitis b virus and has been shown to be more potent in vitro than adefovir. But the results of trials comparing tenofovir and adefovir in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B were inconsistent. However, there was no systematic review on the comparison of the efficacy of tenofovir and adefovir in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. To evaluate the comparison of the efficacy of tenofovir and adefovir in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials. We searched PUBMED, Web of Science, EMBASE, CNKI, VIP database, WANFANG database, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Review. Finally six studies were left for analysis which involved 910 patients in total, of whom 576 were included in tenofovir groups and 334 were included in adefovir groups. At the end of 48-week treatment, tenofovir was superior to adefovir at the HBV-DNA suppression in patients[RR = 2.59; 95%CI(1.01-6.67), P = 0.05]. While there was no significant difference in the ALT normalization[RR = 1.15; 95%CI(0.96-1.37), P = 0.14], HBeAg seroconversion[RR = 1.32; 95%CI(1.00-1.75), P = 0.05] and HBsAg loss rate[RR = 1.19; 95%CI(0.74-1.91), P = 0.48]. More high-quality, well-designed, randomized controlled, multi-center trails are clearly needed to guide evolving standards of care for chronic hepatitis B.
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