Relationship of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells to immune status in HIV-infected patients.

Division of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan.
AIDS (Impact Factor: 6.56). 06/2005; 19(9):879-86. DOI: 10.1097/01.aids.0000171401.23243.56
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine whether the frequencies of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (T Reg) were related to immune status in HIV-infected patients.
Peripheral blood CD4 T-cell populations were examined for T-helper 1 cells (Th1), T-helper 2 cells (Th2), and T Reg by intracellular staining for interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-4, and surface staining for CD25, respectively. The immunoregulatory properties of T Reg were assessed by measurement of the inhibitory effects of isolated CD4+CD25+ T Reg on CD4+CD25- T-cell proliferation.
Isolated CD4+CD25+ T Reg from both HIV-infected patients and healthy controls strongly expressed CD45RO, HLA-DR, and FoxP3. HIV-infected patients with detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA showed a statistically significant increase in CD4+CD25high T Reg frequencies (P < 0.05) compared to healthy controls, with T Reg frequency inversely proportional to CD4 T-cell count (P < 0.01). However, in HIV-infected patients with undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA, CD4+CD25high T Reg frequencies were not increased and were not related to CD4 T-cell counts. In both HIV-infected patient groups, T Reg frequency was inversely related to Th1 frequency (detectable HIV-1 RNA: P < 0.05; undetectable: P < 0.001), but positively related to Th2 frequency (detectable HIV-1 RNA: P < 0.01; undetectable: P < 0.001). T Reg activity was lower in patients with detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA than in patients with undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA.
Increased T Reg frequencies in peripheral blood were related to low peripheral blood CD4 T-cell counts and polarization toward Th2 immune responses in HIV-infected patients.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In chronic HIV infection a progressive Th1 to Th2/Th0 cytokine-profile shift is related to disease progression. One of the possible benefits of a therapeutic vaccination might be to counterbalance this phenomenon to allow viral replication control under a Th1-type immune response. TERAVAC-HIV-1 is a multiantigenic formulation vaccine candidate against HIV-1 which comprises the recombinant protein CR3 that contains T cell epitopes and the surface and nucleocapsid antigens of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). Previous studies showed that such virus like particles of the HBV provide a Th1 adjuvant effect. The present studies examined the capacity of TERAVAC to elicit a Th1 response in the presence of an ongoing HIV-specific Th2-type response in Balb/c mice. To examine this issue, we injected subcutaneously the animals with CR3 or viral lysate in alum which resulted in a Th2-type response. The CR3-specific Th2-type response was verified by induction of IL-4 and IL-10 secretion in ex vivo stimulated splenocytes without secretion of IFN-γ and IgG2a antibodies in serum. Further subcutaneous and simultaneous subcutaneous-nasal immunizations of the same mice with TERAVAC promoted IFN-γ secretion and production of IgG2a antibodies in accordance with a Th1-type response. This result suggests a therapeutic benefit of this vaccine candidate in the restoration of the Th1-type HIV-specific cellular response in seropositive patients.
    Immunology letters 11/2012; 149(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.imlet.2012.11.007 · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in macaques are accompanied by a combined early loss of CCR5 (CD195)-expressing CD4(+) memory T cells, loss of T-helper function and T-cell hyperactivation, which have all been associated with development of high virus load and disease progression. Here, a cohort of vaccinated simian-human immunodeficiency virus strain 89.6p (SHIV(89.6p))-infected rhesus macaques, where preferential depletion of these memory T-cell subsets does not take place and CD4(+) T cells are relatively well maintained, was used to study the role of hyperactivation as an independent factor in the establishment of set-point virus load. In the acute phase of the infection, a transient loss of CD4(+) T cells, as well as strong increases in expression of proliferation and activation markers on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, together with CD152 expression on CD4(+) T cells, were observed. Peak expression levels of these markers on CD4(+) T cells, but not on CD8(+) T cells, were correlated with high virus replication in the chronic phase of the infection. In addition, the peak expression level of these markers was correlated inversely with acute-phase, but not chronic-phase, HIV/SIV-specific gamma interferon responses. These data highlight a central role for an acute but transient CD4 decrease, as well as CD4(+) T-cell activation, as independent factors for prediction of set-point levels of virus replication.
    Journal of General Virology 03/2009; 90(Pt 4):915-26. DOI:10.1099/vir.2008.006148-0 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite eliciting an early antiviral T cell response, HIV-specific T cells are unable to prevent disease progression, partly because of their loss of effector functions, known as T cell exhaustion. Restoring this T cell functionality represents a critical step for regaining immunological control of HIV-1 replication, and may be fundamental for the development of a functional cure for HIV. In this context, the use of animal models is invaluable for evaluating the efficacy and mechanisms of novel therapeutics aimed at reinvigorating T cell functions.
    Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS 07/2014; DOI:10.1097/COH.0000000000000093 · 4.39 Impact Factor