Article

Astrocyte-derived ATP induces vesicle shedding and IL-1 beta release from microglia.

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Institute of Neuroscience, Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology and Department of Medical Pharmacology, University of Milan, Italy.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 07/2005; 174(11):7268-77.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT ATP has been indicated as a primary factor in microglial response to brain injury and inflammation. By acting on different purinergic receptors 2, ATP is known to induce chemotaxis and stimulate the release of several cytokines from these cells. The activation of purinergic receptors 2 in microglia can be triggered either by ATP deriving from dying cells, at sites of brain injury or by ATP released from astrocytes, in the absence of cell damage. By the use of a biochemical approach integrated with video microscopy experiments, we investigated the functional consequences triggered in microglia by ATP released from mechanically stimulated astrocytes, in mixed glial cocultures. Astrocyte-derived ATP induced in nearby microglia the formation and the shedding of membrane vesicles. Vesicle formation was inhibited by the ATP-degrading enzyme apyrase or by P2X(7)R antagonists. Isolation of shed vesicles, followed by IL-1beta evaluation by a specific ELISA revealed the presence of the cytokine inside the vesicular organelles and its subsequent efflux into the extracellular medium. IL-1beta efflux from shed vesicles was enhanced by ATP stimulation and inhibited by pretreatment with the P2X(7) antagonist oxidized ATP, thus indicating a crucial involvement of the pore-forming P2X(7)R in the release of the cytokine. Our data identify astrocyte-derived ATP as the endogenous factor responsible for microvesicle shedding in microglia and reveal the mechanisms by which astrocyte-derived ATP triggers IL-1beta release from these cells.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
127 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is well known that the implantation of electrodes for deep brain stimulation or microelectrode probes for the recording of neuronal activity is always accompanied by the response of the brain’s immune system leading to the formation of a glial scar around the implantation sites. The implantation of electrodes causes massive release of adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) and different cytokines into the extracellular space and activates the microglia. The released ATP and the products of its hydrolysis, such as ADP and adenosine, become the main elements mediating chemotactic sensitivity and motility of microglial cells via subsequent activation of P2Y2,12 as well as A3A/A2A adenosine receptors. The size and density of an insulating sheath around the electrode, formed by microglial cells, are important criteria for the optimization of the signal-to-noise ratio during microelectrode recordings or parameters of electrical current delivered to the brain tissue. Here, we study a purinergic signaling pathway underlying the chemotactic motion of microglia towards implanted electrodes as well as the possible impact of an anti-inflammatory coating consisting of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. We present a model describing the formation of a stable aggregate around the electrode due to the joint chemo-attractive action of ATP and ADP and the mixed influence of extracellular adenosine. The bioactive coating is modeled as a source of chemo-repellent located near the electrode surface. The obtained analytical and numerical results allowed us to reveal the dependences of size and spatial location of the insulating sheath on the amount of released ATP and estimate the impact of immune suppressive coating on the scarring process.
    New Journal of Physics 02/2015; 17(2). DOI:10.1088/1367-2630/17/2/023009 · 3.67 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MMSCs) have been demonstrated to produce mature stromal cells and maintain hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC). It was previously demonstrated that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) stimulates the growth of the stromal microenvironment in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of IL-1 beta treatment of human MMSCs on their proliferative potential, gene expression, immunomodulating properties, and their ability to support HPCs in vitro. Human bone marrow-derived MMSCs were cultivated in standard conditions or with IL-1 beta. The cumulative cell production was assessed for five passages. After withdrawal of IL-1 beta, MMSC clonal efficiency was investigated, and the maintenance of HPCs on top of MMSCs layers was estimated using cobblestone area forming cell (CAFC) and long-term culture initiating cell (LTC-IC) assays. The effect of untreated MMSCs or MMSCs pretreated with IL-1 beta on lymphocyte proliferation was studied by CFSE staining. The relative expression level of various genes by MMSCs was analyzed using RT-qPCR. The administration of IL-1 beta elevated MMSCs clonal efficiency and total cell production but did not affect lymphocyte proliferation. MMSCs pretreatment with IL-1 beta enhanced their ability to maintain HPCs, as detected by CAFC assay, and it altered the expression levels of genes participating in HPC regulation by stromal cells, e.g., adhesion molecules (ICAM1) and growth factors (SDF1). This study revealed the ability of IL-1 beta to stimulate MMSCs proliferation and enhance their potential to maintain HPCs. MMSCs are considered a stromal niche component in vitro. The combined in vitro and previous in vivo data suggest that IL-1 beta is a systemic regulator of the stromal microenvironment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Cytokine 11/2014; 71(2):246-254. DOI:10.1016/j.cyto.2014.10.018 · 2.87 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The nervous and immune systems have evolved in parallel from the early bilaterians, in which innate immunity and a central nervous system (CNS) coexisted for the first time, to jawed vertebrates and the appearance of adaptive immunity. The CNS feeds from, and integrates efferent signals in response to, somatic and autonomic sensory information. The CNS receives input also from the periphery about inflammation and infection. Cytokines, chemokines, and damage-associated soluble mediators of systemic inflammation can also gain access to the CNS via blood flow. In response to systemic inflammation, those soluble mediators can access directly through the circumventricular organs, as well as open the blood-brain barrier. The resulting translocation of inflammatory mediators can interfere with neuronal and glial well-being, leading to a break of balance in brain homeostasis. This in turn results in cognitive and behavioral manifestations commonly present during acute infections - including anorexia, malaise, depression, and decreased physical activity - collectively known as the sickness behavior (SB). While SB manifestations are transient and self-limited, under states of persistent systemic inflammatory response the cognitive and behavioral changes can become permanent. For example, cognitive decline is almost universal in sepsis survivors, and a common finding in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Here, we review recent genetic evidence suggesting an association between neurodegenerative disorders and persistent immune activation; clinical and experimental evidence indicating previously unidentified immune-mediated pathways of neurodegeneration; and novel immunomodulatory targets and their potential relevance for neurodegenerative disorders.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 01/2015; 9:28. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2015.00028 · 4.18 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
29 Downloads
Available from
Jun 6, 2014