Mechanism of oxidation of benzaldehyde by polypyridyl oxo complexes of Ru(IV)

Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States
Inorganic Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.79). 06/2005; 44(11):3931-41. DOI: 10.1021/ic040119z
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The oxidation of benzaldehyde and several of its derivatives to their carboxylic acids by cis-[Ru(IV)(bpy)2(py)(O)]2+ (Ru(IV)=O2+; bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, py is pyridine), cis-[Ru(III)(bpy)2(py)(OH)]2+ (Ru(III)-OH2+), and [Ru(IV)(tpy)(bpy)(O)]2+ (tpy is 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine) in acetonitrile and water has been investigated using a variety of techniques. Several lines of evidence support a one-electron hydrogen-atom transfer (HAT) mechanism for the redox step in the oxidation of benzaldehyde. They include (i) moderate k(C-H)/k(C-D) kinetic isotope effects of 8.1 +/- 0.3 in CH3CN, 9.4 +/- 0.4 in H2O, and 7.2 +/- 0.8 in D2O; (ii) a low k(H2O/D2O) kinetic isotope effect of 1.2 +/- 0.1; (iii) a decrease in rate constant by a factor of only approximately 5 in CH3CN and approximately 8 in H2O for the oxidation of benzaldehyde by cis-[Ru(III)(bpy)2(py)(OH)]2+ compared to cis-[Ru(IV)(bpy)2(py)(O)]2+; (iv) the appearance of cis-[Ru(III)(bpy)2(py)(OH)]2+ rather than cis-[Ru(II)(bpy)2(py)(OH2)]2+ as the initial product; and (v) the small rho value of -0.65 +/- 0.03 in a Hammett plot of log k vs sigma in the oxidation of a series of aldehydes. A mechanism is proposed for the process occurring in the absence of O2 involving (i) preassociation of the reactants, (ii) H-atom transfer to Ru(IV)=O2+ to give Ru(III)-OH2+ and PhCO, (iii) capture of PhCO by Ru(III)-OH2+ to give Ru(II)-OC(O)Ph+ and H+, and (iv) solvolysis to give cis-[Ru(II)(bpy)2(py)(NCCH3)]2+ or the aqua complex and the carboxylic acid as products.

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