Paracrine stimulation of surfactant secretion by extracellular ATP in response to mechanical deformation.
ABSTRACT We developed a heterologous system to study the effect of mechanical deformation on alveolar epithelial cells. First, isolated primary rat alveolar type II (ATII) cells were plated onto silastic substrata coated with fibronectin and maintained in culture under conditions where they become alveolar type I-like (ATI) cells. This was followed by a second set of ATII cells labeled with the nontransferable, vital fluorescent stain 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate to distinguish them from ATI cells. By morphometric analysis, equibiaxial deformation (stretch) of the silastic substratum induced comparable changes in cell surface area for both ATII and ATI cells. Surfactant lipid secretion was measured using cells metabolically labeled with [(3)H]choline. In response to 21% tonic stretch for 15 min, ATII cells seeded with ATI cells secreted nearly threefold more surfactant lipid compared with ATII cells seeded alone. ATI cells did not secrete lipid in response to stretch. The enhanced lipid secretion by ATII plus ATI cocultures was inhibited by treatment with apyrase and adenosine deaminase, suggesting that ATP release by ATI cells enhanced surfactant lipid secretion at 21% stretch. This was confirmed using a luciferase assay where, in response to 21% stretch, ATI cells released fourfold more ATP than ATII cells. Because ATI cells release significantly more ATP at a lower level of stretch than ATII cells, this supports the hypothesis that ATI cells are mechanosensors in the lung and that paracrine stimulation of ATII cells by extracellular ATP released from ATI cells plays a role in regulating surfactant secretion.
Article: Secretion and hydrolysis of ATP by Ehrlich ascites tumor cells during centrifugation. Dependence on calcium and temperature[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Precipitation of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EATC) by centrifugation causes ATP secretion. ATP secretion is accompanied by an increase of calcium concentration in the cytosol and persists for a long time (minutes) after centrifugation during the storage of cells at a low temperature. During prolonged storage (for more than 1.5 h), the concentration of extracellular ATP decreases to the level of ∼100 nM due to termination of secretion and ATP hydrolysis by surface ATPases. The rate of ATP hydrolysis exponentially falls with the temperature decrease from 36 to 8°C. ARL67156, a selective inhibitor of E-NTPDase-1, effectively suppresses the extracellular ATP hydrolysis. The intensity of ATP secretion does not correlate with the calcium ions concentration in the cytosol and Ca2+ mobilization from endoplasmic reticulum but correlates with the intensity of Ca2+ influx into the cells. The temperature dependences of ATP secretion intensity and Ca2+ entry rate coincide. Key wordsEhrlich ascites tumor cells-ATP secretion-centrifugation-calcium-ionomycin-ATP hydrolysisBiochemistry (Moscow) Supplement Series A Membrane and Cell Biology 04/2012; 4(1):90-96.
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ABSTRACT: Alveolar type II (AT II) cells are in close contact with an air-liquid interface (I(AL)). This contact may be of considerable physiological relevance; however, no data exist to provide a satisfying description of this specific microenvironment. This is mainly due to the experimental difficulty to manipulate and analyze cell-air contacts in a specific way. Therefore, we designed assays to quantify cell viability, Ca(2+) changes, and exocytosis in the course of interface contact and miniaturized I(AL) devices for direct, subcellular, and real-time analyses of cell-interface interactions by fluorescence microscopy or interferometry. The studies demonstrated that the sole presence of an I(AL) is not sensed by the cells. However, when AT II cells are forced into closer contact with it, they respond promptly with sustained Ca(2+) signals and surfactant exocytosis before the occurrence of irreversible cell damage. This points to a paradoxical situation: a potential threat and potent stimulus for the cells. Furthermore, we found that the signalling mechanism underlying sensation of an I(AL) can be sufficiently explained by mechanical forces. These results demonstrate that the I(AL) itself can play a major, although so-far neglected, role in lung physiology, particularly in the regulatory mechanisms related with surfactant homeostasis. Moreover, they also support a general new concept of mechanosensation in the lung.AJP Cell Physiology 01/2011; 300(6):C1456-65. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous work from our group (Ravasio A, Hobi N, Bertocchi C, Jesacher A, Dietl P, Haller T. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 300: C1456-C1465, 2011.) showed that contact of alveolar epithelial type II cells with an air-liquid interface (I(AL)) leads to a paradoxical situation. It is a potential threat that can cause cell injury, but also a Ca(2+)-dependent stimulus for surfactant secretion. Both events can be explained by the impact of interfacial tensile forces on cellular structures. Here, the strength of this mechanical stimulus became also apparent in microarray studies by a rapid and significant change on the transcriptional level. Cells challenged with an I(AL) in two different ways showed activation/inactivation of cellular pathways involved in stress response and defense, and a detailed Pubmatrix search identified genes associated with several lung diseases and injuries. Altogether, they suggest a close relationship of interfacial stress sensation with current models in alveolar micromechanics. Further similarities between I(AL) and cell stretch were found with respect to the underlying signaling events. The source of Ca(2+) was extracellular, and the transmembrane Ca(2+) entry pathway suggests the involvement of a mechanosensitive channel. We conclude that alveolar type II cells, due to their location and morphology, are specific sensors of the I(AL), but largely protected from interfacial stress by surfactant release.AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 05/2012; 303(2):L117-29. · 3.66 Impact Factor