Automated brain tissue assessment in the elderly and demented population: construction and validation of a sub-volume probabilistic brain atlas.
ABSTRACT To develop an automated imaging assessment tool that accommodates the anatomic variability of the elderly and demented population as well as the registration errors occurring during spatial normalization.
20 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment, or normal cognition underwent MRI brain imaging and had their 3D volumetric datasets manually partitioned into 68 regions of interest (ROI) termed sub-volumes. Gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) voxel counts were then made in the subject's native space for comparison against automated volumetric measures within three sub-volume probabilistic atlas (SVPA) models. The three SVPAs were constructed using 12 parameter affine (12 p), 2nd order (2nd), and 6th order (6th) transforms derived from registering the manually partitioned scans into a Talairach compatible AD population-based target. The three SVPA automated measures were compared to the manually derived measures in the 20 subjects' native space with a "jack-knife" procedure in which each subject was assessed by an SVPA they did not contribute toward constructing.
The mean left and right GM ratio (GM ratio = [GM + CSF] / CSF) "r values" for the 3 SVPAs compared to the manually derived ratios across the 68 ROIs were 0.85 for the 12p SVPA, 0.88 for the 2nd SVPA, and 0.89 for the 6th SVPA. The mean left and right WM ratio (WM ratio = [WM + CSF] / CSF) "r values" for the 3 SVPAs being 0.84 for the 12p SVPA, 0.86 for the 2nd SVPA, and 0.88 for the 6th SVPA.
We have constructed, from an elderly and demented cohort, an automated brain volumetric tool that has excellent accuracy compared to a manual gold standard and is capable of regional hypothesis testing and individual patient assessment compared to a population.
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ABSTRACT: Heart disease is the main cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with coronary artery disease, diabetes, and obesity being major contributing factors. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) can provide a wealth of quantitative information on the performance of the heart, without risk to the patient. Quantitative analyses of these data can substantially augment the diagnostic quality of CMR examinations and can lead to more effective characterization of disease and quantification of treatment benefit. This review provides an overview of the current state of the art in CMR with particular regard to the quantification of motion, both microscopic and macroscopic, and the application of bioengineering analysis for the evaluation of cardiac mechanics. We discuss the current clinical practice and the likely advances in the next 5-10 years, as well as the ways in which clinical examinations can be augmented by bioengineering analysis of strain, compliance, and stress. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering Volume 15 is July 11, 2013. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.Annual review of biomedical engineering 05/2013; DOI:10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071812-152346 · 12.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Informatics Visualization for Neuroimaging (INVIZIAN) framework allows one to graphically display image and meta-data information from sizeable collections of neuroimaging data as a whole using a dynamic and compelling user interface. Users can fluidly interact with an entire collection of cortical surfaces using only their mouse. In addition, users can cluster and group brains according in multiple ways for subsequent comparison using graphical data mining tools. In this article, we illustrate the utility of INVIZIAN for simultaneous exploration and mining a large collection of extracted cortical surface data arising in clinical neuroimaging studies of patients with Alzheimer's Disease, mild cognitive impairment, as well as healthy control subjects. Alzheimer's Disease is particularly interesting due to the wide-spread effects on cortical architecture and alterations of volume in specific brain areas associated with memory. We demonstrate INVIZIAN's ability to render multiple brain surfaces from multiple diagnostic groups of subjects, showcase the interactivity of the system, and showcase how INVIZIAN can be employed to generate hypotheses about the collection of data which would be suitable for direct access to the underlying raw data and subsequent formal statistical analysis. Specifically, we use INVIZIAN show how cortical thickness and hippocampal volume differences between group are evident even in the absence of more formal hypothesis testing. In the context of neurological diseases linked to brain aging such as AD, INVIZIAN provides a unique means for considering the entirety of whole brain datasets, look for interesting relationships among them, and thereby derive new ideas for further research and study.Brain Imaging and Behavior 11/2013; 8(2). DOI:10.1007/s11682-013-9273-9 · 3.39 Impact Factor