Determination of carbon monoxide (CO) in rodent tissue: Effect of heme administration and environmental CO exposure
ABSTRACT Carbon monoxide (CO), produced endogenously during heme degradation, is considered a messenger molecule in vascular and neurologic tissues. To study this role, it is important to determine CO concentration in target tissues pre- and post-perturbations. Here, we describe a sensitive and reproducible method, which is linear and accurate, and provide some examples of its application for quantitation of CO concentrations in tissues pre- and post-perturbations. Tissues from adult rats and mice were sonicated (20% w/w), and volumes representing 0.04-8 mg fresh weight (FW) were incubated at 0 degrees C for 30 min with sulfosalicylic acid. CO liberated into the headspace was quantitated by gas chromatography. Tissue CO concentrations (mean+/-SD, pmol CO/mg FW) were as follows: blood (47+/-10, 45+/-5), muscle (4+/-4, 10+/-1), kidney (5+/-2, 7+/-2), heart (6+/-3, 6+/-1), spleen (11+/-3, 6+/-1), liver (4+/-1, 5+/-1), intestine (2+/-1, 4+/-2), lung (2+/-1, 3+/-1), testes (1+/-1, 2+/-1), and brain (2+/-1, 2+/-0) in untreated rat (n=3) and mouse (n=5), respectively. Between the rat and the mouse, only CO concentrations in the muscle and spleen were significantly different (p0.05). Endogenous CO generation, after administration of heme arginate to mice (n=3), increased CO concentrations by 0-43 pmol/mg FW. Exposure of mice (n=3) to 500 ppm CO for 30 min yielded significantly elevated CO concentrations by 4-2603 pmol/mg FW in all tissues over the native state. While blood had the highest CO concentration for all conditions, muscle, kidney, heart, spleen, and liver, all rich in hemoglobin and/or other CO-binding hemoproteins, also contained substantial CO concentrations. Intestine, lung, testes, and brain contained the lowest CO concentrations.
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ABSTRACT: Dealing with burnt bodies, the forensic pathologist must first of all answer the question whether the victim was alive at the moment of the fire. This study aims at clarifying whether some human solid tissues may be reliably used for the forensic diagnosis of Co poisoning on burnt bodies providing no collectable blood during the autopsy. From 34 selected cases, both cardiac blood and parenchymal samples were collected to perform CO-oxymeter, spectrophotometry, and gas chromatography tests: blood CO estimations (blood COHb% and blood[CO]) and parenchymal[CO] values have been compared with special focus on R values. The solid tissues having the best correlations with blood CO amount turned out to be the lung (R 0.84), the liver (R 0.83), the kidney (R 0.79), and the spleen (R 0.92).Journal of Forensic Sciences 12/2014; DOI:10.1111/1556-4029.12664 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We demonstrate that Ru(II) (CO)2 -protein complexes, formed by the reaction of the hydrolytic decomposition products of [fac-RuCl(κ(2) -H2 NCH2 CO2 )(CO)3 ] (CORM-3) with histidine residues exposed on the surface of proteins, spontaneously release CO in aqueous solution, cells, and mice. CO release was detected by mass spectrometry (MS) and confocal microscopy using a CO-responsive turn-on fluorescent probe. These findings support our hypothesis that plasma proteins act as CO carriers after in vivo administration of CORM-3. CO released from a synthetic bovine serum albumin (BSA)-Ru(II) (CO)2 complex leads to downregulation of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in cancer cells. Finally, administration of BSA-Ru(II) (CO)2 in mice bearing a colon carcinoma tumor results in enhanced CO accumulation at the tumor. Our data suggest the use of Ru(II) (CO)2 -protein complexes as viable alternatives for the safe and spatially controlled delivery of therapeutic CO in vivo. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English 12/2014; DOI:10.1002/anie.201409344 · 13.45 Impact Factor
01/2013; 9(1-4). DOI:10.1515/irm-2013-0003