[Virtual training in head- and neurosurgery].

Klinik und Poliklinik für HNO-Heilkunde/Plastische Operationen, Universität Leipzig.
Laryngo-Rhino-Otologie (Impact Factor: 0.84). 06/2005; 84(5):335-44.
Source: PubMed


Surgical skill requires training at close-to-reality scenarios. Conventional procedures (practical exercises, anatomical or animal cadavers) are increasingly in conflict with objective parameters (costs of OR, quality management, cadavers availability and cost). Surgical procedures can be covered by using Virtual Surgical Reality (VSR).
We examined the principle of a VSR system and evaluated the results with 30 probands by the example of modified radical mastoidectomy and ventriculocisternostomy. Probands were divided in experienced (A) and non-experienced surgeons (B). The protocol included time of surgery, collisions and fatal injuries at altogether 15 passages (10 passages - break of 14 days - 5 passages). Additionally the Medical Level of Trust (LOT) describes the confidence into the surgical scenario and thus the quality by volume illustration, texture and haptic data feedback to the user. We used a numeric scale between 0 and 100 and the starting point of 50.
The learning effect can be confirmed for both virtual scenarios. The mastoid scenario reaches a total confidence index LOT of 75. The ventricle scenario is evaluated with a total confidence index of 84. The necessary time for the opening of the antrum is reduced from 15.0 minutes (group A) and 22.5 minutes (group B) around 37 % to 9, 5 (group A) and around 56 % to 10.0 minutes (group B). The virtual haptic result was evaluated positive in both scenarios.
VSR systems have the potential to revolutionize surgical training. All surgical experienced probands evaluated the VSR-scenario as near-to-reality. "Suspension of Disbelief" is the major condition for effective virtual reality training systems.

1 Read
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This article reviews the rationale, current status and future directions for the development and implementation of virtual reality surgical simulators as training tools. The complexity of modern surgical techniques, which utilize advanced technology, presents a dilemma for surgical training. Hands-on patient experience - the traditional apprenticeship method for teaching operations - may not apply because of the learning curve for skill acquisition and patient safety expectation. The paranasal sinuses and temporal bone have intricate anatomy with a significant amount of vital structures either within the surgical field or in close proximity. The current standard of surgical care in these areas involves the use of endoscopes, cameras and microscopes, requiring additional hand-eye coordination, an accurate command of fine motor skills, and a thorough knowledge of the anatomy under magnified vision. A surgeon's disorientation or loss of perspective can lead to complications, often catastrophic and occasionally lethal. These considerations define the ideal environment for surgical simulation; not surprisingly, significant research and validation of simulators in these areas have occurred. Virtual reality simulators are demonstrating validity as training and skills assessment tools. Future prototypes will find application for routine use in teaching, surgical planning and the development of new instruments and computer-assisted devices.
    Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery 07/2007; 15(3):163-9. DOI:10.1097/MOO.0b013e32814b0802 · 1.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mastery of the neurosurgical skill set involves many hours of supervised intraoperative training. Convergence of political, economic, and social forces has limited neurosurgical resident operative exposure. There is need to develop realistic neurosurgical simulations that reproduce the operative experience, unrestricted by time and patient safety constraints. Computer-based, virtual reality platforms offer just such a possibility. The combination of virtual reality with dynamic, three-dimensional stereoscopic visualization, and haptic feedback technologies makes realistic procedural simulation possible. Most neurosurgical procedures can be conceptualized and segmented into critical task components, which can be simulated independently or in conjunction with other modules to recreate the experience of a complex neurosurgical procedure. We use the ImmersiveTouch (ImmersiveTouch, Inc., Chicago, IL) virtual reality platform, developed at the University of Illinois at Chicago, to simulate the task of ventriculostomy catheter placement as a proof-of-concept. Computed tomographic data are used to create a virtual anatomic volume. Haptic feedback offers simulated resistance and relaxation with passage of a virtual three-dimensional ventriculostomy catheter through the brain parenchyma into the ventricle. A dynamic three-dimensional graphical interface renders changing visual perspective as the user's head moves. The simulation platform was found to have realistic visual, tactile, and handling characteristics, as assessed by neurosurgical faculty, residents, and medical students. We have developed a realistic, haptics-based virtual reality simulator for neurosurgical education. Our first module recreates a critical component of the ventriculostomy placement task. This approach to task simulation can be assembled in a modular manner to reproduce entire neurosurgical procedures.
    Neurosurgery 08/2007; 61(1):142-8; discussion 148-9. DOI:10.1227/01.neu.0000279734.22931.21 · 3.62 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of ventriculostomy catheter placement on a head- and hand-tracked high-resolution and high-performance virtual reality and haptic technology workstation. Seventy-eight fellows and residents performed simulated ventriculostomy catheter placement on an ImmersiveTouch system. The virtual catheter was placed into a virtual patient's head derived from a computed tomography data set. Participants were allowed one attempt each. The distance from the tip of the catheter to the Monro foramen was measured. The mean distance (+/- standard deviation) from the final position of the catheter tip to the Monro foramen was 16.09 mm (+/- 7.85 mm). The accuracy of virtual ventriculostomy catheter placement achieved by participants using the simulator is comparable to the accuracy reported in a recent retrospective evaluation of free-hand ventriculostomy placements in which the mean distance from the catheter tip to the Monro foramen was 16 mm (+/- 9.6 mm).
    Journal of Neurosurgery 10/2007; 107(3):515-21. DOI:10.3171/JNS-07/09/0515 · 3.74 Impact Factor
Show more