Adult Chiari malformation and sleep apnoea.
ABSTRACT Chiari malformation (CM) is primarily characterised by herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. Clinically, two main types of CM represent the vast majority of cases: type I (in adults) and type II (in infants). CM may result in neuronal impairment of the brainstem, upper spinal cord and cranial nerves. Part of the afferent and efferet systems and the central respiratory controlling system are located in the cranium-cervical transition and may be damaged in these pathologies, leading to respiratory disorders, such as respiratory failure and death. The ventilatory responses to exogenous and endogenous stimuli, such as responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia, are usually diminished, and apnea may be manifested and detected during sleep, allowing for the diagnosis. This study is a review of the relationship between sleep apnoea and adult CM.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Ricardo Vieira Botelho, May 30, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Chiari malformation (CM) type-1 frequently causes obstructive or central sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in both adults and children, although SDB is relatively rare as a presenting manifestation in the absence of other neurological symptoms. The definitive treatment of symptomatic CM is surgical decompression. We report a case that is, to our knowledge, a novel manifestation of central sleep apnea (CSA) due to CM type-1 with severe exacerbation and initial clinical presentation during pregnancy.Frontiers in Neurology 10/2014; 5:195. DOI:10.3389/fneur.2014.00195
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ABSTRACT: The Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) has been associated with sleep-disordered breathing, especially central sleep apnea syndrome. We report the case of a 44-year-old female with CM-I who was referred to our sleep laboratory for suspected sleep apnea. The patient had undergone decompressive surgery 3 years prior. An arterial blood gas analysis showed hypercapnia. Polysomnography showed a respiratory disturbance index of 108 events/h, and all were central apnea events. Treatment with adaptive servo-ventilation was initiated, and central apnea was resolved. This report demonstrates the efficacy of servo-ventilation in the treatment of central sleep apnea syndrome associated with alveolar hypoventilation in a CM-I patient with a history of decompressive surgery.Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia 10/2014; 40(5):574-8. DOI:10.1590/S1806-37132014000500014 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although it is not uncommon for patients with Chiari I malformations to present with respiratory complaints, cough syncope is a rare presenting symptom. We report an adult patient who harbored both a Chiari I malformation and atlanto-occipital assimilation who complained of cough syncope, orthopnea, and central sleep apnea. The patient underwent decompressive craniectomy of the posterior fossa and cervical level 2 laminectomy. However, due to a possible initial underappreciation of the profound narrowing of the foramen magnum as a result of these concomitant pathologies, the patient may have had continued impaired cerebrospinal fluid flow, leading to a symptomatic pseudomeningocele and requiring a more extensive decompression that included a cervical level 3 laminectomy as well as a temporary lumbar drain. On 2-year follow-up, he has remained asymptomatic.Journal of Neurological Surgery 08/2014; 75(1):e1-4. DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1348953 · 0.49 Impact Factor