Traumatic brain injury (TBI) negatively impacts long-term survival. However, little is known about the likelihood of death within the first year following hospital discharge. This study examined mortality among a representative sample of 3679 persons within 1 year of being discharged from any of 62 acute care hospitals in South Carolina following TBI and identified the factors associated with early death using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. The mortality experience of the cohort was also compared with that of the general population by using standardized mortality ratios for selected causes of death by age, adjusted for race and sex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amniotic fluid volume increases progressively through gestation until the middle of the third trimester when amniotic volume averages approximately 800 ml. There can be a wide range of volumes in individual pregnancies and within the same pregnancy over a period of time. Increases in amniotic fluid volume above normal as well as decreases below the normal range are associated with increased fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. In early gestation aberrations in amniotic volume are often associated with fetal anomalies and a variety of genetic diseases. In late gestation, aberrations in amniotic volume are often associated with early delivery because of excess amniotic fluid or fetal stress because of umbilical cord compression when there is too little amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is derived from a combination of sources, including the fetal kidney, lung, and surface of the placenta. Clearance of the amniotic fluid occurs via fetal swallowing and reabsorption across the fetal surface of the placenta. There currently exists no consistently successful therapy for women with abnormal amniotic volumes including those with idiopathic abnormalities. Presently, bed rest and increased maternal fluid intake are sometimes tried as treatment for oligohydramnios whereas maternal indomethacin administration or drainage of excess amniotic fluid at the time of amniocentesis is used for treatment of polyhydramnios. Overall, there remains a great deal to be learned about the amniotic fluid compartment.
Principles of Medical Biology 01/1998; 12(12):211-225. DOI:10.1016/S1569-2582(98)80103-7
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, we consider the problem of providing highly accurate time delay or ranging estimates using multiple receptions of ranging signals in multi-band communication systems. We describe a novel ranging approach that reduces the variance of the time delay estimate by M<sup>3</sup> in white Gaussian noise. The new technique synthesizes the return corresponding to a virtual large bandwidth signal by appropriately merging the returns of M low bandwidth ranging signals from M different sub-bands. These low bandwidth signals can be generated by decomposing a high time resolution large bandwidth signal using a full-tree wavelet decomposition filter bank. The corresponding perfect reconstruction synthesis filter bank is used at the receiver to combine the received signals. Alternatively, we show that the procedure can rely on the preamble sequences used in the proposed IEEE 802.15.3a wireless PAN standard and other communication systems. We study the effect of fading and multipath channels on the performance of the proposed scheme. Simulation results are provided to compare the performance of this scheme with traditional ones.
Global Telecommunications Conference, 2004. GLOBECOM '04. IEEE; 01/2004
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