Effectiveness and safety of risperidone for children and adolescents with chronic tic or tourette disorders in Korea.
ABSTRACT The aim of this 6-week, open-label design study was to determine the short-term effectiveness and safety of risperidone as an alternative for traditional antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of chronic tic disorder or Tourette's Disorder in young children and adolescents. The subjects were 15 young children and adolescents (the ratio of male:female subjects was 13:2 and their mean age was 10 +/- 2.4 years). Seven subjects were diagnosed with Tourette's Disorder and 8 subjects with chronic tic disorder, and all subjects were administered risperidone without hospitalization. Of the 15 subjects, 1 subject had a comorbid disorder (obsessive compulsive disorder), but no subject had a previous history of psychiatric hospitalization. Ten of the 15 subjects were administered risperidone for the first time, and 5 of the 15 subjects had been previously treated with traditional drugs (haloperidol or pimozide). Clinical responses were measured at baseline and after 1, 3, and 6 weeks of drug treatment by using the Korean version of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Side effects were carefully monitored using adverse event evaluation charts. The mean dosage of risperidone was 0.53 +/- 0.13 mg on the 1st week, 0.90 +/- 0.28 mg on the 3rd week, and 1.23 +/- 0.37 mg on the 6th week. Comparison between periods according to the Korean version of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale showed significant differences (t = 4.920; df = 14; p < 0.01) during the 1st- to 3rd-week period. After 6 weeks of administration, the tic severity scale showed a 36% reduction in the overall tic symptom scores and 13 of the 15 subjects showed significant improvement, 1 subject showed no difference in symptoms, and, for 1 subject, the symptoms worsened. Also, the mean Global Assessment of Functioning Scale score was 66.8 +/- 10.8 at baseline and improved to a mean of 73.1 +/- 10.1 after 6 weeks of treatment. Regarding side effects, only 1 case reported sedation, but drug administration was continued because the degree was mild. The results of this study show that, risperidone, a potent combined serotonin (5-HT2) and dopamine (D2) receptor antagonist, is both effective and safe for the treatment for Tourette's Disorder and chronic tic disorder in children and adolescents.
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ABSTRACT: Tourette's syndrome is a relatively common biological genetic disorder with a broad spectrum of neurobehavioural manifestations. Unfortunately, treatment of the condition is often unsatisfactory and all available drugs are associated with potential adverse effects. We therefore aimed to investigate the efficacy of quetiapine, a newer atypical antipsychotic, in the treatment of children and adolescents with Tourette's syndrome. This was a retrospective study carried out in outpatient clinics. Twelve patients aged 8-18 years with Tourette's syndrome (diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV criteria) who were receiving quetiapine therapy and had no diagnosis of epilepsy, major depression or psychotic disorder, were included in the study. The main outcome measure was the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) score. The initial dose of quetiapine was 25 mg/day, but the mean dose was increased to 114.6 +/- 51.6 mg/day and 175.0 +/- 116.8 mg/day at the fourth and eighth weeks of treatment, respectively. The YGTSS score, which was 21.6 +/- 4.0 at baseline, showed significant decreases at 4 and 8 weeks (reducing to 7.5 +/- 7.4 and 5.6 +/- 8.1, respectively; p < 0.003). Routine laboratory parameters and serum prolactin level were all normal and did not change throughout treatment. Mild but significant increases in both bodyweight and body mass index at 4 and 8 weeks compared with baseline were observed. Other than causing mild weight gain, quetiapine appears to be an effective, safe and well tolerated drug in children and adolescents with Tourette's syndrome.Clinical Drug Investigation 02/2007; 27(2):123-30. DOI:10.2165/00044011-200727020-00005
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ABSTRACT: Risperidone has been shown to be a safe and effective atypical antipsychotic agent. It was initially approved for the treatment of schizophrenia, and now, in many countries, is used to treat other conditions, including bipolar disorder, dementia and behavior problems in a range of age groups. Yet, frequent off-label use by clinicians to treat other mood and anxiety disorders and behavioral disorders is common and requires an examination of the risks and benefits in such populations. A review of the literature provides varying levels of evidence supporting its use in a range of depressive and anxiety disorders, and in special populations, including children and the elderly. Most reports are based on short-term studies and include its use both as monotherapy and as an augmenting agent to other psychotropics, and in a range of doses. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm the efficacy and tolerability of risperidone, both short- and long-term, in many of these conditions. The published evidence is summarized, with recommendations and suggestions for its use.Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 09/2007; 8(11):1693-710. DOI:10.1517/146565126.96.36.1993
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ABSTRACT: Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (Tourette's syndrome; TS) is an inherited tic disorder commonly associated with other neurobehavioural conditions such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). While the clinical presentation of TS and other features of this disorder have been well characterized, the genetic and neurobiological basis of the disease remains incompletely elucidated. The suggestion of a central role of dopamine in the aetiology of TS has been made on the basis of experimental studies, evidence from neuroimaging studies and the therapeutic response patients with TS have to agents that antagonize or interfere with putative dopaminergic pathways. Tetrabenazine is such an agent; it depletes presynaptic dopamine and serotonin stores and blocks postsynaptic dopamine receptors. In clinical studies, tetrabenazine has been found to be effective in a wide range of hyperkinetic movement disorders, including small numbers (<50) of patients with TS in some studies. Results of a retrospective chart review enrolling only patients with TS (n = 77; mean age approximately 15 years) showed that 2 years' treatment with tetrabenazine resulted in an improvement in functioning and TS-related symptoms in over 80% of patients, findings that suggest that treatment with tetrabenazine may have long-term benefits. The authors' experience with 120 heavily co-medicated patients with TS confirms these findings. Long-term (mean 19 months) tetrabenazine treatment resulted in a Clinical Global Impressions of Change scale rating of 'improved' in 76% of patients. Such findings are promising and suggest that tetrabenazine may be suitable as add-on therapy in patients for whom additional suppression of tics is required.Clinical Drug Investigation 01/2008; 28(7):443-59.