The aim of this 6-week, open-label design study was to determine the short-term effectiveness and safety of risperidone as an alternative for traditional antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of chronic tic disorder or Tourette's Disorder in young children and adolescents. The subjects were 15 young children and adolescents (the ratio of male:female subjects was 13:2 and their mean age was 10 +/- 2.4 years). Seven subjects were diagnosed with Tourette's Disorder and 8 subjects with chronic tic disorder, and all subjects were administered risperidone without hospitalization. Of the 15 subjects, 1 subject had a comorbid disorder (obsessive compulsive disorder), but no subject had a previous history of psychiatric hospitalization. Ten of the 15 subjects were administered risperidone for the first time, and 5 of the 15 subjects had been previously treated with traditional drugs (haloperidol or pimozide). Clinical responses were measured at baseline and after 1, 3, and 6 weeks of drug treatment by using the Korean version of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Side effects were carefully monitored using adverse event evaluation charts. The mean dosage of risperidone was 0.53 +/- 0.13 mg on the 1st week, 0.90 +/- 0.28 mg on the 3rd week, and 1.23 +/- 0.37 mg on the 6th week. Comparison between periods according to the Korean version of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale showed significant differences (t = 4.920; df = 14; p < 0.01) during the 1st- to 3rd-week period. After 6 weeks of administration, the tic severity scale showed a 36% reduction in the overall tic symptom scores and 13 of the 15 subjects showed significant improvement, 1 subject showed no difference in symptoms, and, for 1 subject, the symptoms worsened. Also, the mean Global Assessment of Functioning Scale score was 66.8 +/- 10.8 at baseline and improved to a mean of 73.1 +/- 10.1 after 6 weeks of treatment. Regarding side effects, only 1 case reported sedation, but drug administration was continued because the degree was mild. The results of this study show that, risperidone, a potent combined serotonin (5-HT2) and dopamine (D2) receptor antagonist, is both effective and safe for the treatment for Tourette's Disorder and chronic tic disorder in children and adolescents.
"Risperidone acts as a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist at low doses and as a D2 antagonist at higher doses.58 It, too, has moderate-to- high affinity for α1-adrenergic, D3, D4, and H1-histamine receptors.11 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with typical onset in childhood and characterized by chronic occurrence of motor and vocal tics. The disorder can lead to serious impairments of both quality of life and psychosocial functioning, particularly for those individuals displaying complex tics. In such patients, drug treatment is recommended. The pathophysiology of TS is thought to involve a dysfunction of basal ganglia-related circuits and hyperactive dopaminergic innervations. Congruently, dopamine receptor antagonism of neuroleptics appears to be the most efficacious approach for pharmacological intervention. To assess the efficacy of the different neuroleptics available, a systematic, keyword-related search in PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Washington, DC) was undertaken. Much information on the use of antipsychotics in the treatment of TS is based on older data. Our objective was to give an update and therefore we focused on papers published in the last decade (between 2001 and 2011). Accordingly, the present review aims to summarize the current and evidence-based knowledge on the risk-benefit ratio of both first and second generation neuroleptics in TS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tourette's syndrome is a relatively common biological genetic disorder with a broad spectrum of neurobehavioural manifestations. Unfortunately, treatment of the condition is often unsatisfactory and all available drugs are associated with potential adverse effects. We therefore aimed to investigate the efficacy of quetiapine, a newer atypical antipsychotic, in the treatment of children and adolescents with Tourette's syndrome.
This was a retrospective study carried out in outpatient clinics. Twelve patients aged 8-18 years with Tourette's syndrome (diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV criteria) who were receiving quetiapine therapy and had no diagnosis of epilepsy, major depression or psychotic disorder, were included in the study. The main outcome measure was the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) score.
The initial dose of quetiapine was 25 mg/day, but the mean dose was increased to 114.6 +/- 51.6 mg/day and 175.0 +/- 116.8 mg/day at the fourth and eighth weeks of treatment, respectively. The YGTSS score, which was 21.6 +/- 4.0 at baseline, showed significant decreases at 4 and 8 weeks (reducing to 7.5 +/- 7.4 and 5.6 +/- 8.1, respectively; p < 0.003). Routine laboratory parameters and serum prolactin level were all normal and did not change throughout treatment. Mild but significant increases in both bodyweight and body mass index at 4 and 8 weeks compared with baseline were observed.
Other than causing mild weight gain, quetiapine appears to be an effective, safe and well tolerated drug in children and adolescents with Tourette's syndrome.
Clinical Drug Investigation 02/2007; 27(2):123-30. DOI:10.2165/00044011-200727020-00005 · 1.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Risperidone has been shown to be a safe and effective atypical antipsychotic agent. It was initially approved for the treatment of schizophrenia, and now, in many countries, is used to treat other conditions, including bipolar disorder, dementia and behavior problems in a range of age groups. Yet, frequent off-label use by clinicians to treat other mood and anxiety disorders and behavioral disorders is common and requires an examination of the risks and benefits in such populations. A review of the literature provides varying levels of evidence supporting its use in a range of depressive and anxiety disorders, and in special populations, including children and the elderly. Most reports are based on short-term studies and include its use both as monotherapy and as an augmenting agent to other psychotropics, and in a range of doses. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm the efficacy and tolerability of risperidone, both short- and long-term, in many of these conditions. The published evidence is summarized, with recommendations and suggestions for its use.
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