Frequent analgesic use at population level: prevalence and patterns of use.
ABSTRACT Statistics and prescription database studies show that analgesics are widely utilized, but do not tell anything about either the factors behind analgesic use or how over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics are being used. We aimed to study the prevalence of frequent use of prescribed and OTC analgesics. We also investigated the background factors related to frequent analgesic use and assessed rationality of analgesic usage patterns. We addressed a postal survey to a random stratified population sample of 6500 Finnish people aged 15-74 years. The response rate was 71% (n=4542) after exclusion of unobtainable addressees (n=68). Individuals reporting analgesic use 'daily' or 'a few times a week' were categorized as frequent users. After adjusting for age and sex, the overall prevalence of daily analgesic use was 8.5%, and the prevalence of analgesic use a few times a week 13.6%. The adjusted prevalence of using exclusively prescribed analgesics daily or a few times a week was 8.7%, and that of utilizing purely OTC analgesics 8.8%. The overall prevalence of concomitant frequent use of both prescribed and OTC analgesics was 4.6%. Multinominal logistic regression analyses showed that frequent analgesic use was related especially to daily or continuous pain and high pain intensity. Low mood and not being employed also increased the probability for daily analgesic use. Frequent analgesic use seems to be common at population level. Concomitant use of both prescribed and OTC analgesics can be considered irrational, as it increases the risk of adverse events.
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ABSTRACT: Mandatory generic substitution (GS) was introduced in Finland at the beginning of April 2003. However, individual patients or physicians may forbid the substitution. GS was a significant change for Finnish medicine users. It was thought it would confuse people when the names, colors, packages, etc., changed. The purpose of this study was to explore what medicine-related factors influence people's choice of prescription drugs five years after generic substitution was introduced in Finland. A population survey was carried out during the autumn of 2008. A random sample was drawn from five mainland counties. A questionnaire was mailed to 3000 people at least 18 years old and living in Finland. The questionnaire consisted of both structured and open-ended questions. Factors that influenced the subjects' choice of medicines were asked with a structured question containing 11 propositions. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed. In total, 1844 questionnaires were returned (response rate, 62%). The percentage of female respondents was 55%. Price, availability, and familiarity were the three most important factors that influenced the choice of medicines. For the people who had refused GS, the familiarity of the medicine was the most important factor. For the subjects who had allowed GS and for those who had both refused and allowed GS, price was the most important factor. The present study shows that price, familiarity, and availability were important factors in the choice of prescription medicines. The external characteristics of the medicines, for instance the color and shape of the tablet/capsule or the appearance of the package, were not significant characteristics for people.BMC Clinical Pharmacology 12/2011; 11:20. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Medicine use as a strategy for coping with daily stressors is an under-studied issue. Studies show that stress is associated with use of over-the-counter medicine, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine whether sense of coherence (SOC) modifies the association between perceived stress and medicine use for headache. National cross-sectional study in Denmark. Study population: men and women aged 25-44 years, n = 990. The survey was conducted by web-based questionnaires and telephone interviews. The outcome measure was medicine use for headache. The independent variable was perceived stress. SOC and gender were investigated as moderators. Social class, headache prevalence and severity, and response method were included as co-variates. Our study showed that SOC modified the association between stress and medicine use for headache (only statistically significant among women). The odds for medicine use among women who felt stressed were 2.30 (1.39-3.79) compared to women who did not feel stressed; among men who felt stressed the equivalent odds were 1.46 (0.80-2.66). In analysis stratified by SOC, the odds for medicine use when stressed were 2.09 (0.71-6.21) among women with high SOC, 2.21 (1.10-4.41) among women with medium SOC and 3.69 (1.09-12.47) among women with low SOC. The equivalent odds for men were 1.29 (0.33-5.04), 1.33 (0.59-3.04) and 2.47 (0.57-10.64), respectively. SOC modifies the association between stress and medicine use especially among women. Individuals with fewer coping resources may be more likely to use medicine beyond indication to treat stress.The European Journal of Public Health 10/2011; 21(5):656-61. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The atmosphere of a retail store is a powerful marketing tool for influencing consumer behavior to the benefit of the retailer. This article explores the case where consumers perceive the store environment as a manipulative tool in use by the retailer. This article hypothesizes that incongruent store environments urge consumers to make inferences of manipulative intent (IMI) from the retailers, and that those inferences negatively influence consumer's perception of the retailers' integrity, and attitudes toward the atmosphere and the retailers. Empirical results from an experiment confirm the hypotheses.Journal of Business Research - J BUS RES. 07/2013;