The management for tuberculosis control in Greater London in comparison with that in Osaka City: lessons for improvement of TB control management in Osaka City urban setting.
ABSTRACT The tuberculosis (TB) notification in Osaka City has been persistently high compared with other urban areas in Japan. Although the TB notification in Greater London has kept much lower level compared with that in Osaka City, it has been also persistently high compared with other urban areas in the UK. Nonetheless, the contexts of the two cities relating TB control programme as well as the epidemiological situation greatly vary; there must be some lessons to be learnt from each other to improve each TB control programme to tackle against TB more effectively. Comparing the epidemiological situation of TB in both cities, it is obvious that Osaka City suffers TB more than Greater London in terms of the TB notification rate. Concerning the context of the TB control programme, Osaka City has centralised approach with strong local government commitment; Greater London, on the other hand, has an approach that is greatly fragmented but coordinated through voluntary TB Networks. This paper aims to draw some constructive and practical lessons from Greater London TB control management for further improvement of Osaka City TB control management through literature review and interview to health professionals. TB epidemiology in Greater London shows distinct features in the extent of TB in new entrants and TB co-infected with HIV in comparison with those in Osaka City. TB epidemiology in Osaka City is to a great extent specifically related to homeless people whereas in Greater London, this relationship occurs to a lesser extent. Both areas have relatively high TB-notification rates compared with national figures, and they have "TB hot spots" where remarkably high TB-notification rates exist. TB control in Greater London is characterised with decentralised and devolved services to local government health authorities supplemented with co-ordinating bodies across sectors as well as across Greater London. Sector-wide TB Network as well as London TB Group (LTBG) and London TB Nurses Network are major key functioning bodies to involve relevant professionals as wide as possible. The specialist TB nurses play key roles for TB case management across Greater London, while in Osaka City, TB control is characterised with strong leadership and commitment of Osaka City Government for the TB control programme. The Osaka City Public Health Centre (PHC) takes initiatives to expand "Cohort Analysis and Case Management Conferences" at each of the 24 Ward Health and Welfare Centres as well as "DOTS Conferences" at hospitals for improvement of case management by physicians and nurses at hospitals as well as by the health centre staff. Public health nurses (PHNs) play very important roles for TB case management as frontline in Osaka City. Comparing the TB control in both cities, the following suggested recommendations are made to both cities for further improvement. Four suggested recommendations to Osaka City are: more resource re-allocation to community-based TB care than to hospital-based TB care should be done; Cohort Analysis and Case Management Conferences should be strengthened through involving more multi-disciplinary sectors; specialist TB PHN at each of the 24 Ward Health and Welfare Centres should be assigned in order to concentrate more on TB control activities; and accessibility to laboratory data such as drug susceptibility test for health centre staff should be improved. Two suggested recommendations to Greater London are: screening for TB high-risk group like homeless people should be strengthened, and regular sector-wide multi-disciplinary case conferences for proper case management should be strengthened.
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ABSTRACT: A retrospective study of tuberculosis notifications in England and Wales published by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys. To analyse the rise in tuberculosis notifications in England and Wales by different sub groups over the time period 1982-91. The average annual percentage change in tuberculosis notification rates (per 100,000) for the groups were analysed by age, sex, standard region and disease site. The average annual increase in tuberculosis notifications from 1987-91 in females was +2.55 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-4.7); males showed no significant change (-0.6%, 95% CI: -2.9 to +2.7). The increase was greater in younger subjects: 3.2% in females aged 25-44 (95% CI 0.9-5.5) and 4.3% in males aged 15-24 (95% CI 1.7-6.9). Only three standard regions showed an increase: the South East, the West Midlands, Yorkshire and Humberside. This increase was significant only in females from the South East, and was predominantly in non-respiratory tuberculosis. The rise in tuberculosis notification rates from 1987-91 has been predominantly in females, in those under 65, has occurred in 3 regions, and predominantly in non-respiratory tuberculosis. The analysis highlights some of the inadequacies of the present notification system for tuberculosis.Tubercle and Lung Disease 07/1995; 76(3):196-200.
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ABSTRACT: The number of patients with tuberculosis has been increasing slowly in England and Wales since the late 1980s. HIV infection has been a contributory factor to increases in tuberculosis in a number of comparable industrialised countries. This study investigated the extent of tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in England and Wales in 1993 and 1998, and estimated its contribution to the increase in tuberculosis observed during this period. Patients aged 16-54 years old at diagnosis on the 1993 and 1998 National Tuberculosis Survey databases were matched with those on the HIV/AIDS patient database. A coded process maintained patient confidentiality. Primary outcome measures were the increase between 1993 and 1998 in the numbers with both infections reported and an estimate of the proportion of the increase in tuberculosis during this period attributable to HIV co-infection. In 1993 61 (2.2%) tuberculosis patients aged 16-54 years matched with patients reported to the HIV database, increasing to 112 (3.3%) in 1998 (p=0.08; OR 1.35; 95% CI 0.97 to 1.87). Patients co-infected with HIV contributed an estimated 8.5% of the increase in number of tuberculosis patients between 1993 and 1998 nationwide (11% in London). In both years prevalence of co-infection was greatest in London and in patients of white and black African ethnic groups. In 1998 the number of tuberculosis patients co-infected with HIV in England and Wales, though still small, had nearly doubled since 1993, with most of the increase occurring in London. As HIV infection may be undiagnosed in patients with tuberculosis, and tuberculosis may be unreported in patients with diagnosed HIV infection, the true extent of co-infection will have been underestimated by this study. In addition, constraints in coded matching make it inevitable that some reported co-infections are missed. Routine HIV testing of all patients with tuberculosis should now be considered, particularly in patients of white or black African ethnic origin under 55 years of age.Thorax 06/2002; 57(5):442-5. · 8.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A survey of tuberculosis in Croydon between 1988 and 1991, using Chest Clinic health visitor records, showed that the disease occurred most frequently in those of Indian Sub-Continent (ISC) ethnic origin. Of the 222 cases during the 4-year period, 65% were of ISC ethnic origin, 22% were Caucasian and 11% Afro-Caribbean. Non-Caucasian cases were younger (P < 0.0001), and more likely to be female (P = 0.064) or present with non-pulmonary disease (P = 0.064). One-quarter of ISC patients developed active tuberculosis more than 15 years after immigration into the UK. Only seven cases were children. The contact tracing procedure resulted in three additional cases, all of whom were contacts of smear-positive index cases. There were significantly fewer Heaf or radiologically positive contacts of non-smear positive pulmonary, or non-pulmonary index cases (P = 0.0002). The value of the current contact tracing system is discussed.Public Health 07/1995; 109(4):251-7. · 1.35 Impact Factor