Immunohistochemical expression of cyclooxygenase 2 in follicular carcinomas of the thyroid.
ABSTRACT Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) has been shown to be up-regulated and/or overexpressed in a variety of human neoplasms. However, limited data exist on the role of COX-2 in follicular carcinomas of the thyroid. Studies in this area are potentially significant, since therapeutic agents that inhibit COX-2 are currently available and could play a role in treatment.
A retrospective clinicopathologic review with COX-2 immunohistochemical staining of 34 follicular carcinomas and 7 follicular adenomas with incomplete capsular penetration was performed.
The study included 41 patients (25 women; mean age, 50.9 years). All patients underwent gross total resection of the neoplasm. Fifteen carcinoma patients received adjuvant radiotherapy. Seven patients with follicular carcinomas developed recurrent disease: 3 patients were alive (mean follow-up, 10.1 years) and 4 patients died of metastatic disease (mean follow-up, 3.5 years). All remaining patients were disease free (mean follow-up, 5.9 years). Only 1 follicular adenoma with incomplete capsular penetration recurred (patient alive at 9 years). The remaining patients were disease free (mean follow-up, 4.9 years). The COX-2 staining was positive in 11 tumors (9 of 34 follicular carcinomas, 2 of 7 follicular adenomas with incomplete capsular penetration). A greater percentage of recurrences (36% COX-2 positive vs 13% COX-2 negative) and fatal tumors (18% COX-2 positive vs 7% COX-2 negative) occurred in patients who had COX-2-positive staining neoplasms.
Only a few follicular carcinomas (26%) and follicular adenomas with incomplete capsular penetration (29%) express COX-2 by immunohistochemical analysis. The data suggest that such expression of COX-2 may correlate with increased tumor recurrence and death; however, studies with larger numbers of patients will be needed to establish this.
Article: Thyroid tumors in dogs and cats.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The clinical presentation and biologic behavior of thyroid tumors vary widely among dogs, cats, and human beings. Although thyroid tumors in dogs are rare, they are most likely to be malignant. Clinical signs are usually the result of impingement on surrounding structures, and clinical hyperthyroidism is rare. In contrast, hyperthyroidism resulting from benign thyroid proliferation is relatively common among older cats. Malignant tumors are extremely uncommon but have high metastatic potential. Irrespective of the tumor's ability to produce functional thyroid hormone, scintigraphy is often helpful in the diagnosis and staging of thyroid tumors in all three species. Treatment with surgery is a reasonable treatment option for noninvasive tumors. Iodine 131 is a well-established treatment for thyroid nodules in cats, but its effectiveness in dogs is controversial. In dogs, external beam radiation therapy has produced more consistent results in affording local tumor control when surgery is not possible.Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice 08/2007; 37(4):755-73, vii. DOI:10.1016/j.cvsm.2007.03.008 · 1.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thyroid lesions with nodular architecture and follicular pattern of growth often pose difficulties in accurate diagnosis during the assessment of cytologic and histologic specimens. The diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on cytology or of follicular tumor of uncertain malignant potential on histology is likely to cause confusion among clinicians and delay effective management of these lesions. Occasionally, thyroid tumors represent unusual or metastatic lesions and their accurate diagnosis requires immunohistochemical confirmation. To review the literature on the applications of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of thyroid tumors. Relevant articles indexed in PubMed (National Library of Medicine) between 1976 and 2006. Our review supports the use of ancillary techniques involving a panel of antibodies suitable for immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis in the assessment of thyroid nodules. These tools can improve diagnostic accuracy when combined with standard morphologic criteria.Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 04/2008; 132(3):359-72. DOI:10.1043/1543-2165(2008)132[359:AOITTN]2.0.CO;2 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: For management of thyroid nodules, distinction between benign and malignant tumours is essential. The study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of molecular markers in different thyroid tumours. Immunohistochemistry for CD56, HBME-1, COX-2, Ki-67, p53 and E-cadherin (E-CAD) was performed in 113 benign and 35 malignant thyroid lesions including 36 follicular adenomas (FA), 77 colloid goitres, 26 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) and 9 follicular carcinomas (FC). The results were scored semiquantitatively by staining intensity (0-3 scale) and percentage of positive cells. PTC was characterised by decreased E-CAD and CD56 expression in contrast to surrounding benign thyroid tissues. HBME-1 expression was absent in benign thyroid tissues but was notably high in PTC and occasionally in FC. The expression of E-CAD and CD56 in FA was significantly higher than in the surrounding thyroid tissues. No expression of p53 was found in any group. The expression of COX-2 was low in all lesions. The proliferation activity by Ki-67 was generally low; however, it was significantly higher in cancers. The panel consisting of three markers, HBME-1, E-CAD and CD56, can be recommended as an adjunct to morphology criteria. HBME-1 is found in malignant lesions only and is the most sensitive and specific single marker in PTC. Decreased expression of E-CAD and CD56 distinguishes PTC from FA and FC. Both FA and FC are characterised by high expression of E-CAD and CD56. The practical use of Ki-67 is difficult due to low values. The role of adhesion factors in thyroid malignancies may be superior in comparison with cell proliferation.Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 09/2010; 395(7):885-91. DOI:10.1007/s00423-010-0690-6 · 2.16 Impact Factor