Immunohistochemical expression of cyclooxygenase 2 in follicular carcinomas of the thyroid
Department of Anatomic Pathology, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA. Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
(Impact Factor: 2.84).
07/2005; 129(6):736-41. DOI: 10.1043/1543-2165(2005)129[736:IEOCIF]2.0.CO;2
Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) has been shown to be up-regulated and/or overexpressed in a variety of human neoplasms. However, limited data exist on the role of COX-2 in follicular carcinomas of the thyroid. Studies in this area are potentially significant, since therapeutic agents that inhibit COX-2 are currently available and could play a role in treatment.
A retrospective clinicopathologic review with COX-2 immunohistochemical staining of 34 follicular carcinomas and 7 follicular adenomas with incomplete capsular penetration was performed.
The study included 41 patients (25 women; mean age, 50.9 years). All patients underwent gross total resection of the neoplasm. Fifteen carcinoma patients received adjuvant radiotherapy. Seven patients with follicular carcinomas developed recurrent disease: 3 patients were alive (mean follow-up, 10.1 years) and 4 patients died of metastatic disease (mean follow-up, 3.5 years). All remaining patients were disease free (mean follow-up, 5.9 years). Only 1 follicular adenoma with incomplete capsular penetration recurred (patient alive at 9 years). The remaining patients were disease free (mean follow-up, 4.9 years). The COX-2 staining was positive in 11 tumors (9 of 34 follicular carcinomas, 2 of 7 follicular adenomas with incomplete capsular penetration). A greater percentage of recurrences (36% COX-2 positive vs 13% COX-2 negative) and fatal tumors (18% COX-2 positive vs 7% COX-2 negative) occurred in patients who had COX-2-positive staining neoplasms.
Only a few follicular carcinomas (26%) and follicular adenomas with incomplete capsular penetration (29%) express COX-2 by immunohistochemical analysis. The data suggest that such expression of COX-2 may correlate with increased tumor recurrence and death; however, studies with larger numbers of patients will be needed to establish this.
Available from: Kinga Krawczyk-Rusiecka
- "Cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression was found in 40.9% of FTC and 20% of FTA but without any statistical significance in COX-2 expression between those two clinical entities. Cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression was also found in the study of Haynik et al. ; that study included 34 patients with FTC and demonstrated increased COX-2 expression in 26% of them. There was no association between positive staining for COX-2 and other prognostic indicators (vascular invasion, capsular penetration, necrosis or Hürthle cell lesion) but the authors found a higher percentage of recurrences or metastases and of tumours that caused death in cases with COX-2-positive staining . "
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ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase (COX), also known as prostaglandin H synthase, catalyses the formation of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. It can be expressed in response to various stimuli, such as hormones, mitogens, cytokines, other inflammatory mediators and growth factors. The product of COX-2 activity has been implicated in carcinogenesis by promoting angiogenesis, inhibiting apoptosis, increasing cell invasion and stimulating cell proliferation. It has also been proved that the regular intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) decreases the risk of developing colon and breast cancers. Thus, it speaks for an important role of COX-2 in growth processes of various types of neoplasms. The connection between COX-2 activity and carcinogenesis has also been examined in human thyroid neoplasms. COX-2 overexpression has been reported in thyroid cancers and also in inflammatory conditions. In consequence there is significant interest whether COX-2 could be of importance as a molecular marker of malignancy in the case of thyroid carcinoma.
10/2010; 6(5):653-7. DOI:10.5114/aoms.2010.17076
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ABSTRACT: The clinical presentation and biologic behavior of thyroid tumors vary widely among dogs, cats, and human beings. Although thyroid tumors in dogs are rare, they are most likely to be malignant. Clinical signs are usually the result of impingement on surrounding structures, and clinical hyperthyroidism is rare. In contrast, hyperthyroidism resulting from benign thyroid proliferation is relatively common among older cats. Malignant tumors are extremely uncommon but have high metastatic potential. Irrespective of the tumor's ability to produce functional thyroid hormone, scintigraphy is often helpful in the diagnosis and staging of thyroid tumors in all three species. Treatment with surgery is a reasonable treatment option for noninvasive tumors. Iodine 131 is a well-established treatment for thyroid nodules in cats, but its effectiveness in dogs is controversial. In dogs, external beam radiation therapy has produced more consistent results in affording local tumor control when surgery is not possible.
Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice 08/2007; 37(4):755-73, vii. DOI:10.1016/j.cvsm.2007.03.008 · 0.82 Impact Factor
Available from: Sylvia L Asa
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ABSTRACT: Thyroid lesions with nodular architecture and follicular pattern of growth often pose difficulties in accurate diagnosis during the assessment of cytologic and histologic specimens. The diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on cytology or of follicular tumor of uncertain malignant potential on histology is likely to cause confusion among clinicians and delay effective management of these lesions. Occasionally, thyroid tumors represent unusual or metastatic lesions and their accurate diagnosis requires immunohistochemical confirmation.
To review the literature on the applications of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of thyroid tumors.
Relevant articles indexed in PubMed (National Library of Medicine) between 1976 and 2006.
Our review supports the use of ancillary techniques involving a panel of antibodies suitable for immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis in the assessment of thyroid nodules. These tools can improve diagnostic accuracy when combined with standard morphologic criteria.
Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 04/2008; 132(3):359-72. DOI:10.1043/1543-2165(2008)132[359:AOITTN]2.0.CO;2 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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