PI 3-kinase, protein kinase C, and protein kinase A are involved in the trigger phase of beta1-adrenergic preconditioning.
ABSTRACT Using an isolated non-working rat heart model, this study investigated the mechanisms of pharmacological preconditioning (PC) induced by transient beta1-adrenoreceptor (beta1-AR) stimulation with xamoterol (XA).
After 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) pretreatment and a 20-min stabilization period, hearts were perfused at constant pressure for 20 min then subjected to 40 min of global ischemia and 30 min of reperfusion (I/R, Ctrl); exposed to 0.01 microM XA for 5 min with or without 10 microM atenolol (ATE), a specific antagonist of beta1-AR, followed by a 15-min XA-free perfusion before I/R (PC, ATE-PC, respectively); treated during 20 min with either phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase inhibitors, LY-294002 (LY, 15 microM), or wortmaninn (WO, 0.1 microM); protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, GF-109203X (GF, 4 nM); or protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H89 (H89, 1 microM), with an infusion starting 3 min before XA (LY-PC, WO-PC, GF-PC, and H89-PC, respectively). The main endpoints were the mean coronary flow (MCF), the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), rate-pressure product (RPP), and creatine kinase (CK) release.
XA induced an increase in the MCF after I/R (t 105 min) and a protective effect on the LVEDP, which were blocked by ATE and abolished with the different inhibitors. The transient increase in RPP following XA infusion was blocked by ATE and was not modified by the inhibitors except for H89. Recovery of RPP, measured 25 min after reperfusion, was improved by XA, blocked by ATE, and decreased with the different inhibitors. Fifteen minutes after the end of ischemia, CK release reached maximal values in all groups. XA provided significant protection whereas ATE and the four inhibitors suppressed XA-induced protection.
The transient preischemic exposure to nanomolar concentrations of a beta1-AR agonist is protective against I/R. PI 3-kinase, PKC, and PKA are implicated in the trigger phase of PC. These observations were confirmed by Western blots.
Article: β(1)-Adrenoceptor Autoantibodies from DCM Patients Enhance the Proliferation of T Lymphocytes through the β(1)-AR/cAMP/PKA and p38 MAPK Pathways.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Autoantibodies against the second extracellular loop of the β(1)-adrenergic receptor (β(1)-AA) not only contribute to increased susceptibility to heart failure, but also play a causative role in myocardial remodeling through their sympathomimetic-like effects that are induced upon binding to the β(1)-adrenergic receptor. However, their role in the function of T lymphocytes has never been previously investigated. Our present study was designed to determine whether β(1)-AA isolated from the sera of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients caused the proliferation of T cells and the secretion of cytokines. Blood samples were collected from 95 DCM patients as well as 95 healthy subjects, and β(1)-AA was detected using ELISA. The CD3(+)T lymphocytes were selected separately through flow cytometry and the effect of β(1)-AA on T lymphocyte proliferation was examined by CCK-8 kits and CFSE assay. Western blotting was used to analyze the expressions of phospho-VASP and phospho-p38 MAPK. β(1)-AA enhanced the proliferation of T lymphocytes. This effect could be blocked by the selective β(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist metoprolol, PKA inhibitor H89, and p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Furthermore, the expression of the phosphorylated forms of phospho-VASP and phospho-p38 MAPK were markedly increased in the presence of β(1)-AA. β(1)-AA also inhibited the secretion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) while promoting an increase in interleukin-4 (IL-4) levels. These results demonstrate that β(1)-AA isolated from DCM patients binds to β(1)-AR on the surface of T cells, causing changes in T-cell proliferation and secretion through the β(1)-AR/cAMP/PKA and p38 MAPK pathways.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(12):e52911. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Protein kinases are intimately integrated in different signal transduction pathways for the regulation of cardiac function in both health and disease. Protein kinase A (PKA), Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK), protein kinase C (PKC), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) are not only involved in the control of subcellular activities for maintaining cardiac function, but also participate in the development of cardiac dysfunction in cardiac hypertrophy, diabetic cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Although all these kinases serve as signal transducing proteins by phosphorylating different sites in cardiomyocytes, some of their effects are cardioprotective whereas others are detrimental. Such opposing effects of each signal transduction pathway seem to depend upon the duration and intensity of stimulus as well as the type of kinase isoform for each kinase. In view of the fact that most of these kinases are activated in heart disease and their inhibition has been shown to improve cardiac function, it is suggested that these kinases form excellent targets for drug development for therapy of heart disease.Pharmaceuticals. 01/2010;
Article: Transient receptor potential melastatin 4 inhibitor 9-phenanthrol abolishes arrhythmias induced by hypoxia and re-oxygenation in mouse ventricle.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hypoxia and subsequent re-oxygenation are associated with cardiac arrhythmias such as early afterdepolarizations (EADs), which may be partly explained by perturbations in cytosolic calcium concentration. Transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4), a calcium-activated non-selective cation channel, is functionally expressed in the heart. Based on its biophysical properties, it is likely to participate in EADs. Hence, modulators of TRPM4 activity may influence arrhythmias. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible anti-arrhythmic effect of 9-phenanthrol, a TRPM4 inhibitor in a murine heart model of hypoxia and re-oxygenation-induced EADs. Mouse heart was removed, and the right ventricle was pinned in a superfusion chamber. After a period of normoxia, the preparation was superfused for 2 h with a hypoxic solution and then re-oxygenated. Spontaneous electrical activity was investigated by intracellular microelectrode recordings. In normoxic conditions, the ventricle exhibited spontaneous action potentials. Application of the hypoxia and re-oxygenation protocol unmasked hypoxia-induced EADs, the occurrence of which increased under re-oxygenation. The frequency of these EADs was reduced by superfusion with either flufenamic acid, a blocker of Ca(2+) -dependent cation channels or with 9-phenanthrol. Superfusion with 9-phenanthrol (10(-5) or 10(-4) mol·L(-1) ) caused a dramatic dose-dependent abolition of EADs. Hypoxia and re-oxygenation-induced EADs can be generated in the mouse heart model. 9-Phenanthrol abolished EADs, which strongly suggests the involvement of TRPM4 in the generation of EAD. This identifies non-selective cation channels inhibitors as new pharmacological candidates in the treatment of arrhythmias.British Journal of Pharmacology 10/2011; 165(7):2354-64. · 4.41 Impact Factor