Pathways into ecstasy use: the role of prior cannabis use and ecstasy availability.
ABSTRACT To explore the role of cannabis use for the availability of ecstasy as a potential pathway to subsequent first ecstasy use.
Baseline and 4-year follow-up data from a prospective-longitudinal community study of originally 3021 adolescents and young adults aged 14-24 years at baseline were assessed using the standardized M-CIDI and DSM-IV criteria.
Baseline cannabis users reported at follow-up more frequent access to ecstasy than cannabis non-users. Higher cannabis use frequencies were associated with increased ecstasy availability reports. Logistic regression analyses revealed that cannabis use and availability of ecstasy at baseline are predictors for incident ecstasy use during the follow-up period. Testing simultaneously the impact of prior cannabis use and ecstasy availability including potential confounders, the association with cannabis use and later ecstasy use was confirmed (OR=6.3; 95%CI=3.6-10.9). However, the association with ecstasy availability was no longer significant (OR=1.2; 95%CI=0.3-3.9).
Results suggest that cannabis use is a powerful risk factor for subsequent first onset of ecstasy use and this relation cannot be sufficiently explained by availability of ecstasy in the observation period.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Petra Zimmermann, Mar 18, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Wstęp. Celem artykułu jest podsumowanie aktualnego stanu wiedzy na temat doraźnych i długofalowych konsekwencji zdrowotnych i społecznych ponoszonych zarówno przez rekreacyjnych jak i regularnych użytkowników marihuany. Materiał i metoda. Materiału poszukiwano na stronach internetowych światowych i europejskich autorytetów w zakresie zdrowia publicznego i polityki wobec substancji psychoaktywnych, oraz na stronie Medline - największej bibliograficznej bazy danych na świecie z dziedziny medycyny i nauk pokrewnych. Słowa kluczowe uwzględnione w przeglądzie, to marihuana, marijuana, cannabis. Szczególną uwagę poświęcono raportom, przeglądom, meta–analizom podsumowującym doświadczenia i wyniki badań. Wyniki. Szczególnie długotrwałe zażywanie marihuany w porównaniu do okazjonalnego, czy rekreacyjnego używania, może być związane z podwyższonym ryzykiem zdrowotnym oraz może pociągać za sobą negatywne konsekwencje w funkcjonowaniu społecznym. Większość konsumentów używających marihuany eksperymentalnie lub okazjonalnie nie ponosi poważniejszych konsekwencji zdrowotnych, jak i społecznych. Jak się wydaje szkody społeczne, związane z używaniem przetworów konopi wynikają przede wszystkim z kryminalizacji zjawiska a nie z właściwości THC. [Intruduction. This article aims to summarize the current state of knowledge on the immediate and long-term health and social consequences experienced by both the recreational and regular users of marijuana. Method. Material was sought on the websites of global and European authorities on public health and policy on psychoactive substances, and on Medline - the largest bibliographic database in the world on medicine and related sciences. Key words included in the review, it is marijuana, marihuana, cannabis. Particular attention was paid to the reports, surveys, meta-analysis summarizing the experiences and results Results. Especially long-term use of marijuana as compared to occasional or recreational use, may be associated with increased health risks, and may entail negative consequences for social functioning. Most consumers who use marijuana experimentally or occasionally does not experience serious health and social consequences. It seems that the social harm associated with the use of cannabis preparations is mainly due to the criminalization of the phenomenon, not result directly from the properties of THC.]Alkoholizm i narkomania 06/2012; 25(2):167-186.
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ABSTRACT: The use of cannabis and other illegal drugs is particularly prevalent in male young adults and is associated with severe health problems. This longitudinal study explored variables associated with the onset of cannabis use and the onset of illegal drug use other than cannabis separately in male young adults, including demographics, religion and religiosity, health, social context, substance use, and personality. Furthermore, we explored how far the gateway hypothesis and the common liability to addiction model are in line with the resulting prediction models. The data were gathered within the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). Young men aged around 20 years provided demographic, social, health, substance use, and personality-related data at baseline. Onset of cannabis and other drug use were assessed at 15-months follow-up. Samples of 2,774 and 4,254 individuals who indicated at baseline that they have not used cannabis and other drugs, respectively, in their life and who provided follow-up data were used for the prediction models. Hierarchical logistic stepwise regressions were conducted, in order to identify predictors of the late onset of cannabis and other drug use separately. Not providing for oneself, having siblings, depressiveness, parental divorce, lower parental knowledge of peers and the whereabouts, peer pressure, very low nicotine dependence, and sensation seeking were positively associated with the onset of cannabis use. Practising religion was negatively associated with the onset of cannabis use. Onset of drug use other than cannabis showed a positive association with depressiveness, antisocial personality disorder, lower parental knowledge of peers and the whereabouts, psychiatric problems of peers, problematic cannabis use, and sensation seeking. Consideration of the predictor variables identified within this study may help to identify young male adults for whom preventive measures for cannabis or other drug use are most appropriate. The results provide evidence for both the gateway hypothesis and the common liability to addiction model and point to further variables like depressiveness or practising of religion that might influence the onset of drug use.BMC Public Health 11/2014; 14(1):1202. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1202 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The "Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology (EDSP)" study is a prospective-longitudinal study program in a community sample (Munich, Germany) of adolescents and young adults. The program was launched in 1994 to study the prevalence and incidence of psychopathological syndromes and mental disorders, to describe the natural course and to identify vulnerability and risk factors for onset and progression as well as psychosocial consequences. This paper reviews methods and core outcomes of this study program. The EDSP is based on an age-stratified random community sample of originally N = 3021 subjects aged 14-24 years at baseline, followed up over 10 years with up to 3 follow-up waves. The program includes a family genetic supplement and nested cohorts with lab assessments including blood samples for genetic analyses. Psychopathology was assessed with the DSM-IV/M-CIDI; embedded dimensional scales and instruments assessed vulnerability and risk factors. Beyond the provision of age-specific prevalence and incidence rates for a wide range of mental disorders, analyses of their patterns of onset, course and interrelationships, the program identified common and diagnosis-specific distal and proximal vulnerability and risk factors including critical interactions. The EDSP study advanced our knowledge on the developmental pathways and trajectories, symptom progression and unfolding of disorder comorbidity, highlighting the dynamic nature of many disorders and their determinants. The results have been instrumental for defining more appropriate diagnostic thresholds, led to the derivation of symptom progression models and were helpful to identify promising targets for prevention and intervention.Social Psychiatry 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00127-015-1062-x · 2.58 Impact Factor