Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: cognitive behavior therapy vs. exposure and response prevention.

Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2B5.
Behaviour Research and Therapy (Impact Factor: 3.85). 01/2006; 43(12):1559-76. DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2004.11.012
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The efficacy of contemporary cognitive therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has only recently been investigated. The current study compares exposure and response prevention (ERP) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) delivered in an individual format. Participants were randomly assigned to the 12 consecutive-week CBT or ERP treatment. Based on 59 treatment completers, there was no significant difference in YBOCS scores between CBT and ERP at post-treatment or at 3-month follow-up. A higher percentage of CBT participants obtained recovered status at post-treatment (67%) and at follow-up (76%), compared to ERP participants (59% and 58%, respectively), but the difference was not significant. Effect sizes (ESs) were used to compare the results of the current study with a previous study conducted at our center that utilized group CBT and ERP treatments, as well as other controlled trials that have compared CBT and ERP. The significance of these results is discussed and a comparison is made with the existing literature.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives There are a number of effective psychological interventions for anxiety disorders. Anecdotal and empirical evidence indicates that clients are often highly apprehensive about commencing therapy. However, to date, there have been no empirical studies of the content of individuals’ fears about beginning a psychological treatment for anxiety problems. Here we describe the development and initial validation of the Treatment Ambivalence Questionnaire (TAQ), a 30-item self-report measure of concerns about commencing psychological treatment for anxiety.Methods Participants were a large group of individuals with a principal diagnosis of an anxiety disorder who were referred to a specialty anxiety disorders clinic. Participants completed the TAQ as well as several general self-report instruments before commencing treatment.ResultsThe TAQ exhibited good internal consistency and, based on exploratory factor analyses, the items yielded three subscales: (a) fears of the personal consequences of engaging in treatment (e.g., personality change), (b) fears of negative or adverse reactions to treatment (e.g., not getting better), and (c) concerns about the inconvenience of engaging in treatment (e.g., treatment will be time-consuming). Confirmatory factor analysis supported this factor structure. Scores on the TAQ did not simply represent general symptom severity or distress. Preliminary data on the relation of TAQ scores to treatment outcome suggested either no relationship or a small relationship.Conclusion The TAQ may be a useful means of normalizing treatment fears, identifying and addressing specific fears, and identifying people who may benefit from treatment readiness interventions.
    Journal of Clinical Psychology 04/2014; · 2.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which encompasses exposure with response prevention (ERP) and cognitive therapy, has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the samples studied (reflecting the heterogeneity of OCD), the interventions examined (reflecting the heterogeneity of CBT), and the definitions of treatment response vary considerably across studies. This review examined the meta-analyses conducted on ERP and cognitive therapy (CT) for OCD. Also examined was the available research on long-term outcome associated with ERP and CT. The available research indicates that ERP is the first line evidence based psychotherapeutic treatment for OCD and that concurrent administration of cognitive therapy that targets specific symptom-related difficulties characteristic of OCD may improve tolerance of distress, symptom-related dysfunctional beliefs, adherence to treatment, and reduce drop out. Recommendations are provided for treatment delivery for OCD in general practice and other service delivery settings. The literature suggests that ERP and CT may be delivered in a wide range of clinical settings. Although the data are not extensive, the available research suggests that treatment gains following ERP are durable. Suggestions for future research to refine therapeutic outcome are also considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Psychiatry research. 12/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Contemporary cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) emphasize the importance of various types of dysfunctional beliefs in contributing to OC symptoms, such as beliefs about excessive personal responsibility, perfectionism, and intolerance for uncertainty. The present study seeks to further our understanding of the role of these beliefs by identifying the common profiles of such beliefs, using profile analysis via multidimensional scaling (PAMS). In Study 1, a large student sample (N=4079) completed the 44-item obsessive beliefs questionnaire. One major profile, control of thoughts and perfectionism, was extracted. Study 2 examined profiles of the 87-item obsessive beliefs questionnaire in people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; n=398), other anxiety disorders (n=104), and a sample of undergraduate students (n=285). Inflated responsibility was a prominent subscale in the profiles of all three groups. Only control over thoughts was a unique subscale in the profile obtained for the OCD group, with this group having lower scores compared to the other groups. The results suggest that while inflated responsibility is a significant subscale in the profile of individuals with OCD, it is not a unique contributor; instead, control over thoughts is unique to OCD. The data, as well as recent research investigating obsessive beliefs, suggest the need to revise the contemporary cognitive model of OCD.
    Journal of anxiety disorders 03/2014; 28(4):352-357. · 2.68 Impact Factor


Available from